Bibliography: African Americans (page 1218 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Douglas Fisher, Leah O'Neill Fichtner, Janet R. Cummings, Mary Beth DelGaudio, Linda Tyler, Inc Noel-Levitz, Robert G. Oats, Sandy Baum, Richard R. Verdugo, and Casandra E. Harper.

Tyler, Linda (2011). Toward Increasing Teacher Diversity: Targeting Support and Intervention for Teacher Licensure Candidates, Educational Testing Service. Since 2006, the National Education Association (NEA) and Educational Testing Service (ETS) have been working collaboratively to support teacher candidates in preparing for "The Praxis Series"[TM] of teacher licensure assessments, currently used in 41 states and territories. Their focus has been particularly targeted to assisting minority candidates. This work is foundational to the mission of both organizations. As they embarked upon this work, they realized that they needed stronger research into specific areas of performance gaps on teacher assessments between minority and nonminority candidates. They then jointly conducted research into this issue. The research involved both statistical analyses of "Praxis"[TM] data and field research, collecting information from faculty and candidates. The purpose of this research was to form a solid foundation of understanding to inform their efforts to support candidates. In this report, the author and her colleagues share the findings of that research, as well as a summary of their efforts, to date, to support teacher candidates. In the report, they focus on the disparate performance between minority and nonminority teacher candidates on licensure tests. The data show that minority teacher candidates score lower on average on their licensure tests. The data also show that minority teacher candidates take licensure tests later in their academic and professional careers, and that the delay correlates with lower test scores and passing rates. (Contains 8 tables, 2 figures and 11 footnotes.) [This paper was written with Brooke Whiting, Sarah Ferguson, Segun Eubanks, Jonathan Steinberg, Linda Scatton and Katherine Bassett.]   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Testing, Minority Group Teachers, Diversity (Faculty), Intervention

Harper, Casandra E. (2011). Identity, Intersectionality, and Mixed-Methods Approaches, New Directions for Institutional Research. In this article, the author argues that current strategies to study and understand students' identities fall short of fully capturing their complexity. A multi-dimensional perspective and a mixed-methods approach can reveal nuance that is missed with current approaches. The author offers an illustration of how mixed-methods research can promote a more nuanced understanding of how students perceive their identity. Further, she highlights the ways in which intersectionality and mixed methods can inform seemingly one-dimensional categories, such as race, as well as identity more broadly defined, where all salient characteristics (race, gender, class) are considered simultaneously. Finally, she concludes the article with a discussion of application of these ideas to practice within the context of institutional research.   [More]  Descriptors: Institutional Research, Research Methodology, Research Problems, Qualitative Research

Verdugo, Richard R. (2011). The Heavens May Fall: School Dropouts, the Achievement Gap, and Statistical Bias, Education and Urban Society. In this article, the author examined the AG by noting that the NAEP reported math scores among 17-year-olds is upwardly biased when compared with the scores of this same cohort 4 years earlier when they were 13 years old. It is upwardly biased because an important event happens over the 4-year period between 8th and 12th grade–a large percentage of students leave school without graduating, and they tend to be the poorest performing students. The analyses indicate that there is indeed a considerable amount of bias in these test scores, for all three ethnic-racial groups and thus for the reported achievement gaps. There are two conclusions to be drawn from the analysis. First, it is inappropriate to compare the eighth-grade scores with those that occur 4 years later when they were 17 year old. Over the 4-year period, the population of high school students has changed as a result of significant events, such as dropout rates. These rates are especially significant among Black and Hispanic students. Second, because of such bias, the achievement gap, as reported, is misleading and adjustments need to be made if we are to get an accurate portrait of student achievement and the achievement gap.   [More]  Descriptors: Statistical Bias, Race, Dropout Rate, Dropouts

Losen, Daniel J. (2011). Discipline Policies, Successful Schools, and Racial Justice, National Education Policy Center. In March of 2010, Secretary of Education Arne Duncan delivered a speech that highlighted racial disparities in school suspension and expulsion and that called for more rigorous civil rights enforcement in education. He suggested that students with disabilities and Black students, especially males, were suspended far more often than their White counterparts. These students, he also noted, were often punished more severely for similar misdeeds. Just months later, in September of 2010, a report analyzing 2006 data collected by the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights found that more than 28% of Black male middle school students had been suspended at least once. This is nearly three times the 10% rate for white males. Further, 18% of Black females in middle school were suspended, more than four times as often as white females (4%).3 Later that same month, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder and Secretary Duncan each addressed a conference of civil rights lawyers in Washington, D.C., and affirmed their departments' commitment to ending such disparities. This policy brief reviews what researchers have learned about racial disparities in school discipline, including trends over time and how these disparities further break down along lines of gender and disability status. Further, the brief explores the impact that school suspension has on children and their families, including the possibility that frequent out-of-school suspension may have a harmful and racially disparate impact. As part of the disparate impact analysis, the brief examines whether frequent disciplinary exclusion from school is educationally justifiable and whether other discipline policies and practices might better promote a safe and orderly learning environment while generating significantly less racial disparity. Findings of this brief strongly suggest a need for reform. A review of the evidence suggests that subgroups experiencing disproportionate suspension miss important instructional time and are at greater risk of disengagement and diminished educational opportunities. Moreover, despite the fact that suspension is a predictor of students' risk for dropping out, school personnel are not required to report or evaluate the impact of disciplinary decisions. Overall, the evidence shows the following: there is no research base to support frequent suspension or expulsion in response to non-violent and mundane forms of adolescent misbehavior; large disparities by race, gender and disability status are evident in the use of these punishments; frequent suspension and expulsion are associated with negative outcomes; and better alternatives are available. (Contains 3 figures, 1 table and 97 notes.) [For related reports, see: (1) "Federal Policy Recommendations to Promote Fair and Effective School Discipline. NEPC Discipline Resource Sheet" (ED524713); (2) "School Discipline: What the Research Tells Us–Myths and Facts. NEPC Discipline Resource Sheet" (ED524710); (3) "Good Discipline: Legislation for Education Reform" (ED524714); (4) "Good Discipline: Legislation for Education Reform. Appendices" (ED524715); and (5) "State Legislative Recommendations to Promote Fair and Effective School Discipline. NEPC Discipline Resource Sheet" (ED524712).]   [More]  Descriptors: Suspension, Civil Rights, Educational Change, Social Justice

Sethna, Beheruz N. (2011). Minorities in Higher Education: A Pipeline Problem?, Research in Higher Education Journal. This paper uses national data from the American Council on Education (ACE) to study the progress of different ethnic groups through the academic pipeline–stages studied include the Bachelor's, Master's, doctoral, levels, and then progress to the Assistant, Associate, and (full) Professor stages, to full-time administrators and finally to the CEO stage. Critics of the Higher Education system might claim that the relatively low percentages of minorities in Higher Education represent a failure of our system to provide sufficient minority graduates. However, an opposing point of view states that these low percentages and numbers are simply a reflection of the "pipeline problem." In other words, since there are low numbers (or percentages) of minorities coming through the system–at each stage, if the "Input" is small, then, even the best processes of creating good products, are doomed to turn out, at best, low quantities of "Output." The results show that the answer to this question is not a monolithic "Yes" or "No," but that there is considerable variation for the various ethnic groups at different stages of the academic pipeline. Different ethnic groups need support and assistance to succeed at different stages of the academic pipeline. These imbalances can be corrected only with a substantial commitment of energy and resources from the entire higher education community. Such, then, is the recommendation–that all of these players and partners commit themselves to helping all groups–the majority and each minority population achieve success at all stages of the higher education pipeline.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethnic Groups, Racial Differences, Minority Group Students, Higher Education

Alrehaly, Essa D. (2011). Parental Attitudes and the Effects of Ethnicity: How They Influence Children's Attitudes toward Science Education, Online Submission. The purpose of this study was to explore the manner in which parents' attitudes toward science learning influences their children's attitudes and the effect of ethnicity on attitudes toward science learning. The results of this study show that parental attitudes toward science learning were influenced by both parents' early life experiences and their own early science learning experiences in school. Also in this study, even though the parents' attitudes, as seen across ethnicities, were found to be positive toward science learning, their attitudes failed to be transformed into serious actions taken to influence their children's attitudes toward science learning. In the absence of real parental involvement, parents' attitudes, displayed as beliefs and intentions, have been found to be of limited importance in influencing either student attitudes or attainments. Cultural, ethnic and social effects were found difficult to measure. In sum, this study concluded that there are three major factors that could heavily influence student academic success in science across cultures and ethnicities: (a) parental attitudes toward science education (b) parental involvement in science education and (c) parents' social stratification. Parents' subculture and social construction block or promote many opportunities for individual performance.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethnicity, Student Attitudes, Parent Participation, Social Stratification

Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G. (2011). Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health to derive a nationally representative sample of 7,704 adolescents (12-17 years old) diagnosed with major depression in the past year. Racial/ethnic differences were estimated with weighted probit regressions across several measurements of mental health service use controlling for demographics and health status. Additional models assessed whether family income and health insurance status accounted for these differences. Results: The adjusted percentages of blacks (32%), Hispanics (31%), and Asians (19%) who received any treatment for major depression were significantly lower than those of non-Hispanic whites (40%; p less than 0.001). Black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents were also significantly less likely than non-Hispanic whites to receive prescription medication for major depression, to receive treatment for major depression from a mental health specialist or medical provider, and to receive any mental health treatment in an outpatient setting (p less than 0.01). These differences persisted after adjusting for family income and insurance status. Conclusion: Results indicated low rates of mental health treatment for major depression in all adolescents. Improving access to mental health care for adolescents will also require attention to racial/ethnic subgroups at highest risk for nonreceipt of services.   [More]  Descriptors: Health Services, Family Income, Mental Health Programs, Health Conditions

Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Lapp, Diane (2011). Focusing on the Participation and Engagement Gap: A Case Study on Closing the Achievement Gap, Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk. In this case study, we focus on 2 variables often neglected in conversations about closing the achievement gap. Most recommendations for closing the achievement gap center on extending learning time, including afterschool programs, extended year programs, and supplemental instruction. Our school focused on attendance and student engagement in our effort to close the achievement gap. By developing a schoolwide plan that ensured that attendance was noticed, corrected, and celebrated, students at our urban school began attending on par with their suburban counterparts. In addition, we focused on student engagement once they were at school. Through a number of schoolwide instructional routines, including teacher modeling and productive group work, students became involved in learning and their achievement improved. Together, these initiatives further closed the achievement gap.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, Academic Achievement, Case Studies, Parent Participation

Rosilez, Anthony John (2011). Stories of Social Justice from Superintendents of Color: Intersections of Resistance, ProQuest LLC. Current literature on public school superintendents of color emphasize how these leaders leverage personal characteristics of resiliency, networking, and a commitment to equity to overcome obstacles to entry and retention in the superintendency. However, this literature fails to address with detail the nature of the resistance these administrators face from across the range of educational stakeholders and how the administrators specifically respond to such countervailing pressures within organizational contexts specific to their social justice efforts. Research questions of this study included: (1) What strategies do superintendents of color use to enact social justice?; (2) What resistances are they facing as they enact social justice?; (3) How do they address these resistances?; and (4) What role does the superintendents' race play in the resistances they face and how they respond to the resistances? This qualitative study is conceptually framed within a feminist poststructural perspective of social justice leadership as resistance. Data collection included interviews of six superintendents of color, school and district administrators, and school board members in districts that have significantly raised the achievement of marginalized students in integrated settings. The superintendents of color engaged stakeholders with inequities in their districts and created more equitable educational institutions by building individual educator capacity for change through reflective practice and prescribing inclusive pedagogy relevant to all students. These leaders faced resistance to their efforts from multiple sources, yet were steadfast to their visions of equity and excellence. Findings contribute to the knowledge base of district-level administration reform efforts for social justice and to the preparation and support of administrators of color in a profession in which they remain a disproportionate minority.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Superintendents, Change Strategies, Educational Strategies

Burke, Raymond V.; Oats, Robert G.; Ringle, Jay L.; Fichtner, Leah O'Neill; DelGaudio, Mary Beth (2011). Implementation of a Classroom Management Program with Urban Elementary Schools in Low-Income Neighborhoods: Does Program Fidelity Affect Student Behavior and Academic Outcomes?, Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk. Students with persistent disruptive behavior problems lose valuable time in academic lessons, are a distraction for classmates, and cause stress for teachers. Recent meta-analyses indicate that 87% to 92% of published studies on school-based interventions targeting student problem behaviors report results from demonstration projects (involving highly trained staff under ideal circumstances) rather than routine practice programs. This study investigates the routine use of a schoolwide classroom management program and its relationship to elementary students' social and academic outcomes. Three years after training in the classroom management program, 56 second-, third-, and fourth-grade teachers in an urban school district were assessed for fidelity to the program. Program fidelity was determined via direct observation in the classroom and validated by teacher self-ratings of fidelity and administrator ratings of teacher fidelity. Dependent variables included student engagement during academic lessons, out-of-school suspension rates, and report card grades. Results indicated that high program fidelity was significantly related to greater academic engagement and fewer suspensions, but not higher report card grades. This study adds to the scant literature on implementation fidelity of routine programs with high-risk populations.   [More]  Descriptors: Learner Engagement, Report Cards, Classroom Techniques, Urban Schools

Noel-Levitz, Inc (2011). Addendum by Race/Ethnicity: National Freshman Attitudes Report, 2011. National Research Study. Included in this addendum are the findings for the Noel-Levitz 2011 National Freshman Attitudes Report by race/ethnicity for incoming students. These data show the percentage of students within each group that agreed with each item. Demographic breakdown of the respondents is presented on pages 7 and 8. [For related report, "National Freshman Attitudes Report, 2011. Special Focus: Attitudes That May Limit Academic Engagement. Sixth Annual National Research Study," see ED536415.]   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: College Freshmen, Student Surveys, National Surveys, Academic Aspiration

Baum, Sandy; Flores, Stella M. (2011). Higher Education and Children in Immigrant Families, Future of Children. The increasing role that immigrants and their children, especially those from Latin America, are playing in American society, Sandy Baum and Stella Flores argue, makes it essential that as many young newcomers as possible enroll and succeed in postsecondary education. Immigrant youths from some countries find the doors to the nation's colleges wide open. But other groups, such as those from Latin America, Laos, and Cambodia, often fail to get a postsecondary education. Immigration status itself is not a hindrance. The characteristics of the immigrants, such as their country of origin, race, and parental socioeconomic status, in addition to the communities, schools, and legal barriers that greet them in the United States, explain most of that variation. Postsecondary attainment rates of young people who come from low-income households and, regardless of income or immigration status, whose parents have no college experience are low across the board. Exacerbating the financial constraints is the reality that low-income students and those whose parents have little education are frequently ill prepared academically to succeed in college. The sharp rise in demand for skilled labor over the past few decades has made it more urgent than ever to provide access to postsecondary education for all. And policy solutions, say the authors, require researchers to better understand the differences among immigrant groups. Removing barriers to education and to employment opportunities for undocumented students poses political, not conceptual, problems. Providing adequate funding for postsecondary education through low tuition and grant aid is also straightforward, if not easy to accomplish. Assuring that Mexican immigrants and others who grow up in low-income communities have the opportunity to prepare themselves academically for college is more challenging. Policies to improve the elementary and secondary school experiences of all children are key to improving the postsecondary success of all.   [More]  Descriptors: Postsecondary Education, Mexican Americans, Foreign Countries, Immigrants

Amos, Jason, Ed. (2011). Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress. Volume 11, Number 4, Alliance for Excellent Education. "Straight A's: Public Education Policy and Progress" is a biweekly newsletter that focuses on education news and events both in Washington, DC and around the country. The following articles are included in this issue: (1) House Passes FY 2011 Spending Bill: Bill Cuts U.S. Department of Education Funding by $5 Billion; Title I, School Improvement Grants, Striving Readers, and Other Programs Facing Funding Cuts; (2) Obama Releases FY 2012 Budget: U.S. Department of Education Slated to Receive 4.6 Percent Increase in Funding; (3) "The 7th Annual AP[R] Report to the Nation": Minority Students Still Underrepresented in AP Classrooms and Success Stories; and (4) State of the States: Governors Prioritize International Competitiveness, Innovation, Graduation Rates, and Vocational Education.   [More]  Descriptors: Graduation Rate, Educational Finance, Educational Change, Politics of Education

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Trends in the Prevalence of Selected Risk Behaviors and Obesity for Black Students. National YRBS: 1991-2011. The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors priority health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The national YRBS is conducted every two years during the spring semester and provides data representative of 9th through 12th grade students in public and private schools throughout the United States. This fact sheet presents trends in the prevalence of selected risk behaviors and obesity for Black students from 1991 to 2011.   [More]  Descriptors: Private Schools, Obesity, Incidence, At Risk Students

Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Wang, Jia (2011). Choice without Equity: Charter School Segregation, Education Policy Analysis Archives. The political popularity of charter schools is unmistakable. This article explores the relationship between charter schools and segregation across the country, in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and several dozen metropolitan areas with large enrollments of charter school students in 2007-08. The descriptive analysis of the charter school enrollment is aimed at understanding the characteristics of students enrolled in charter schools and the extent to which charter school students are segregated, including how charter school segregation compare to students in traditional public schools. This article examines these questions at different levels, aggregating school-level enrollment to explore patterns among metropolitan areas, states, and the nation using three national datasets. Our findings suggest that charters currently isolate students by race and class. This analysis of recent data finds that charter schools are more racially isolated than traditional public schools in virtually every state and large metropolitan area in the nation. In some regions, white students are overrepresented in charter schools while in other charter schools; minority students have little exposure to white students. Data about the extent to which charter schools serve low-income and English Language Learners is incomplete, but suggest that a substantial share of charter schools may not enroll such students. As charters represent an increasing share of our public schools, they influence the level of segregation experienced by all of our nation's school-aged children. After two decades, the promise of charter schools to use choice to foster integration and equality in American education has yet to be realized.   [More]  Descriptors: Charter Schools, School Segregation, Metropolitan Areas, Minority Groups

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