Bibliography: African Americans (page 1216 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Mag Polek, Lewis Z. Schlosser, Aesha Rasheed, Julian D. Ford, Asha Z. Ivey, Cheryl A. King, R. Scott Pfeifer, Alissa C. Huth-Bocks, Heather Z. Lyons, and Carrie Kilman.

Huth-Bocks, Alissa C.; Kerr, David C. R.; Ivey, Asha Z.; Kramer, Anne C.; King, Cheryl A. (2007). Assessment of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Suicidal Adolescents: Self-Report Instruments as Predictors of Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Objective: The validity and clinical utility of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) were examined longitudinally among suicidal adolescents. Method: Between 1998 and 2000, 289 psychiatrically hospitalized, suicidal youth, ages 12 to 17 years, participated in this study. Self-report measures were completed at baseline. Clinician-rated suicidality and suicide attempt were collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Results: Baseline self-reports were internally consistent and strongly intercorrelated within male, female, white, and black subsamples. All of the measures predicted follow-up suicidality and suicide attempts. Using published cutoff scores, the Beck Hopelessness Scale and SPS were moderately to highly sensitive predictors of subsequent suicide attempts, as was the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior for predicting suicide attempts and broad suicidality. Alternative cutoff scores that predicted outcomes with moderate and high sensitivity also were examined, with attention to resultant sacrifices in specificity. Conclusions: Baseline self-report scores predicted follow-up suicidality. SPS contributed uniquely to prediction of future suicidality and suicide attempt. SPS may supplement other sources of information when assessing suicide risk with this population.   [More]  Descriptors: Measures (Individuals), Probability, Adolescents, Depression (Psychology)

Plotnick, Robert D.; Garfinkel, Irwin; McLanahan, Sara S.; Ku, Inhoe (2007). The Impact of Child Support Enforcement Policy on Nonmarital Childbearing, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. The interaction of welfare and child support regulations has created a situation in which child support policy's incentives that discourage unwed fatherhood tend to be stronger than its incentives that encourage unwed motherhood. This suggests that more stringent child support enforcement creates incentives that reduce the likelihood of nonmarital childbearing, particularly among women with a significant chance of needing public assistance in the event of a nonmarital birth and their male partners. We investigate this hypothesis with a sample of women from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, to which we add information on state child support enforcement. We examine childbearing behavior between the ages of 15 and 44 before marriage and during periods of non-marriage following divorce or widowhood. The estimates indicate that women living in states with more effective child support enforcement are less likely to bear children when unmarried, especially if they are young, never-married, or black. The findings suggest that improved child support enforcement may be a potent intervention for reducing nonmarital childbearing.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, Children, Welfare Services, Financial Support

Rasheed, Aesha (2007). Education in New Orleans: Some Background, High School Journal. Understanding the post-storm landscape of education in New Orleans and the metro area requires a grasp of some of the pre-storm realities of New Orleans public schools. This article will provide a brief overview of three arenas important to understanding the educational landscape of New Orleans–parish governance, desegregation and private schools. Furthermore, the author states that when examining education in New Orleans, one must consider the history and culture of the communities.   [More]  Descriptors: Private Schools, Public Education, Elementary Secondary Education, Natural Disasters

Lichtenstein, Bronwen (2007). Illicit Drug Use and the Social Context of HIV/AIDS in Alabama's Black Belt, Journal of Rural Health. Context: The rural Black Belt of Alabama is among the poorest areas of the nation. Poverty, lack of health infrastructure, and health disparities involving HIV/AIDS and other diseases reflect the lower life expectancy of people in the region. The Black Belt region has the highest HIV rates in rural America. Purpose: Using Alabama as a case example, the paper describes the role of illicit drug use in pathways to HIV transmission in the Black Belt and examines the relationship between drug use and social context with respect to HIV/AIDS disparities in the region. Methods: Published research and national and state data were triangulated for information on interactions between illicit drug use, social context, and HIV/AIDS. Findings: Illicit drug use is implicated in HIV risk in Alabama's Black Belt, but less so than in other parts of the nation. Published research suggests that the impetus for drug use involves status seeking in the context of heterosexual contact and economic disparities. HIV transmission in Alabama's Black Belt speaks to the tyranny of small places; that is, the risk of HIV/AIDS occurs in geographically bounded areas with a history of racial homogeneity, historically high rates of sexually transmitted infections, and clustered sexual networks in this isolated region. Conclusions: Social context is an important correlate of HIV risk in the Black Belt. The role of drug use in HIV risk is secondary to social-contextual factors involving rural isolation, racial homogeneity, and the racial disparities of the region.   [More]  Descriptors: Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Drug Use, Rural Areas, Social Environment

Pluviose, David (2007). Right Person, Right Time, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. This article discusses the appointment of Dr. Drew Gilpin Faust as the first woman named president of Harvard University, which marks a diversity high point in the storied history of the nation's oldest university. At age 9, Faust famously wrote to U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower calling for an end to segregation. And in her current role as a noted historian of the Civil War and Black culture, Faust has shown a profound understanding of the dynamics of race in America. Currently dean of Harvard's Radcliffe Institute for the Advanced Study, Faust earned a doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania and worked her way through the faculty ranks before moving on to Harvard. Faust's appointment means that half of the presidents of Ivy League universities are women, and comes as a relief to many critics of her predecessor, Dr. Lawrence Summers. Nevertheless, Dr. Amy Gutmann, Penn's president and an ardent supporter of Faust, says the Ivy League has a long way to go when it comes to promoting diversity across the board.   [More]  Descriptors: Presidents, African American Culture, Sex Fairness, Equal Education

Alon, Sigal (2007). The Influence of Financial Aid in Leveling Group Differences in Graduating from Elite Institutions, Economics of Education Review. This paper assesses the effectiveness of financial aid in promoting the persistence of black and Hispanic students admitted to the most selective colleges and universities in the United States to complete their college education. To explore whether more dollars of aid enhance graduation, the analysis separates two constructs–aid eligibility and aid amount–when assessing their influence on graduation likelihood of these students. Using the College & Beyond (C&B) database and implementing an IV/LATE analytical strategy, I find that although need-based aid eligibility is negatively related to graduation likelihood, aid amounts exert a positive influence on graduation, conditional on eligibility for aid. Among types of aid, grants and scholarships have the most positive effect on graduation. The results also indicate that financial aid amounts help equalize initial racial and ethnic differences in graduation likelihood. Minority students' graduation likelihood is found to be more sensitive to the amount of financial resources they secure, especially in the form of grants and scholarships, than that of their white counterparts.   [More]  Descriptors: Colleges, Minority Groups, Grants, Scholarships

Christensen, Lois McFadyen; Kirkland, Lynn Doty; Noblitt, Laurie Drennen (2007). Children and Social Change in Alabama: 1965 and 2005, Social Studies and the Young Learner. In this article, the authors describe a lesson that helps elementary students build a sense of citizenship and moral consciousness about justice. Children participated in the struggle for civil and voting rights in Selma and in other places in the South during the 1960s. Initially, it was children's literature that sparked these third grade students' curiosity and energized their inquiry. The photographs also prompted questions. Then using a video, the teacher invited students to vicariously live through this era of American history, sensing the unfairness and tension, feeling frustrated as well as hopeful, and longing to learn about the outcomes of the struggle.   [More]  Descriptors: Grade 3, Social Change, Childrens Literature, Social Studies

Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Talleyrand, Regine M.; Lyons, Heather Z.; Baker, Lisa M. (2007). Racism, Antisemitism, and the Schism between Blacks and Jews in the United States: A Pilot Intergroup Encounter Program, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. A schism now exists between Blacks and Jews in the United States, 2 groups that were strong allies during the civil rights movement. The authors describe the historical antecedents of and contributing factors to this schism and present information on and lessons learned from 2 Black-Jewish dialogues that were conducted.   [More]  Descriptors: Jews, Civil Rights, Racial Bias, African Americans

Peppler, Kylie A.; Kafai, Yasmin B. (2007). From SuperGoo to Scratch: Exploring Creative Digital Media Production in Informal Learning, Learning, Media and Technology. Based on work in media studies, new literacy studies, applied linguistics, the arts and empirical research on the experiences of urban youths' informal media arts practices, we articulate a new vision for media education in the digital age that encompasses new genres, convergence, media mixes and participation. We first outline the history of how students' creative production has been used to meet the goals of media educators and highlight new trends in media education that are instructive for creative production. Our goal is to introduce and situate the new ways in which youth are participating in creative production and the subsequent impact that this might have on teaching and learning media education today. Findings from an ethnographic study are used to demonstrate the potential of youth producing new media, such as videogames and interactive art, on media education research and practice.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Youth, Informal Education, Ethnography, Production Techniques

Ball, Deborah Loewenberg; Forzani, Francesca M. (2007). 2007 Wallace Foundation Distinguished Lecture–What Makes Education "Research Educational"?, Educational Researcher. Education research is plagued by skeptics who doubt its quality and relevance. Inhabitants of schools of education have been among the sharpest critics, and internal battles rage over method and rigor. Yet often lacking is research that explains causes or examines the interplay at the heart of educational practice and policy. This article argues for a conception of research in education that deliberately presses into what is called here the "instructional dynamic." Using a sample of studies that exemplify this quintessentially educational perspective, the authors unpack key features of research that probes inside education. They discuss how such research complements in essential ways the other kinds of scholarship that examine and inform education.   [More]  Descriptors: Schools of Education, Educational Practices, Educational Research, Educational Policy

Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori (2007). The Influence of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families, Journal of Marriage and Family. This article examines whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, using data from the 1979 to 2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file (N = 6,501). Results indicate that for White children, living with a single mother and a grandparent is associated with increased cognitive stimulation and higher reading recognition scores, compared to living with a single mother alone. For Black children, grandparent coresidence is associated with less cognitive stimulation. Thus, in some instances, living with a grandparent can benefit children, but the pattern of results differs by race.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Children, Stimulation, Mothers, Grandparents

Ford, Julian D.; Trestman, Robert L.; Wiesbrock, Valerie; Zhang, Wanli (2007). Development and Validation of a Brief Mental Health Screening Instrument for Newly Incarcerated Adults, Assessment. The authors report the development and initial psychometric evaluation of gender-specific brief screening instruments to identify undetected psychiatric impairment on incarceration. Women and men completed the Correctional Mental Health Screen (CMHS), a 56-item screen derived from validated measures. Representative subsamples completed structured diagnostic interviews within 5 days. An 8-item screen for women and a 12-item screen for men identified inmates with current Axis I psychiatric disorders with 83% to 100% accuracy on the basis of cut points chosen to maximize negative predictive power. The CMHS showed evidence of incremental predictive utility compared with two previously validated correctional mental health screening measures with White and Black men and White women. Incremental validity was not supported with Black women, for whom the CMHS performed well in identifying true cases but not in ruling out noncases. Analyses of internal consistency, interrater, and retest reliability and convergent, discriminant, and criterion validity supported the psychometric status of the CMHS.   [More]  Descriptors: Psychometrics, Mental Health, Test Validity, Mental Disorders

Pfeifer, R. Scott; Polek, Mag (2007). Creating a Climate of Trust, Principal Leadership. The trouble started when an anonymous e-mail alleged abuse of power at Centennial High School in Howard County, Maryland. Each week, the local paper reported new developments in the investigation. On top of that, the family of a Black student reported that a culture of racism existed at Centennial. At the end of the year, members of the community and the board of education held a meeting to discuss the issues at the school. The packed meeting deteriorated into a name-calling, shouting match tinged with charges of racism at worst and racial insensitivity at best. When the existing principal retired suddenly during the turmoil, the superintendent expected the new principal to make cultural proficiency his first priority. But how can a school become culturally proficient when parents and students do not know whether diversity is truly valued? The school community had to begin building cultural proficiency from the ground up. The administrators adopted several key elements as the scaffolding for the process: (1) building trust; (2) increasing diversity among staff members; (3) learning about cultural proficiency and its guiding principles; and (4) identifying a champion to lead the way. The English department became a model for the school as it furthered the culturally inclusive curriculum. Trust and a focus on the principles of culturally proficient schools combined to put Centennial back on track.   [More]  Descriptors: Trust (Psychology), English Departments, Models, African American Students

King, Nicelma J. (2007). Exit Strategies: Cultural Implications for Graduation Tests, Principal Leadership. Racial and language minority students who must repeat high school exit exams are at increased risk of dropping out of school. Each time students fail an exit exam, they become less confident that they will ever pass and more unsure about their ability to graduate and their postsecondary plans. The relationship between students' culture and their performance must be understood to improve graduation rates and postsecondary outcomes. As concerned educational leaders of school communities that want to contribute to a more culturally competent educational system, high school principals have three important roles in improving the situation for those students most at risk of failing to graduate. These roles include goalsetter, instructional leader, and culturally competent leader.   [More]  Descriptors: Minority Groups, Principals, Language Minorities, Graduation Rate

Kilman, Carrie (2007). "Gates of Change", Teaching Tolerance. In September 1957, nine brave Black students crossed a line of armed soldiers to integrate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in the first major test of school desegregation after "Brown v. Board of Education" toppled the notion of "separate but equal." Though this is still an operating high school, on most days tourists stop here. They wander the grounds in clusters, pausing to stand next to the reflecting pool, pointing their cameras upward. They shield their eyes from the sun, squinting to read a sign bearing the school's name. They lean down to remind their children what happened here. This September, Little Rock will honor the 50th anniversary of the Little Rock Nine. The anniversary is more than a chance to look back and honor ordinary students who turned into heroes. It also is a chance to look forward, to see exactly how far we still must travel to achieve the promises set out in "Brown." What makes the story of the Little Rock Nine still relevant are the invisible lines, dividing schools and neighborhoods, that continue to separate Americans by race and class. This article discusses the costs of resegregation and Central High School's efforts to commemorate and apply the lessons of its own history.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Blacks, White Students, Racial Segregation

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