Bibliography: African Americans (page 1215 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Wilman Kuhlman, Jonathan Gayles, Martyn Barrett, Kevin S. McGrew, Stephanie C. Davis, Ana Carballal, Frank D. Bean, Ireon LeBeauf, Timothy Z. Keith, and Patrick J. Leman.

Ndegwa, David; Horner, Dudley; Esau, Faldie (2007). The Links between Migration, Poverty and Health: Evidence from Khayelitsha and Mitchell's Plain, Social Indicators Research. In the mid-1950s, the City of Cape Town was part of a wider area demarcated as a Coloured Labour Preference Area. The free movement of African people into the city was strictly controlled and the residential areas were segregated along racial lines. In terms of Apartheid's grand design, an area designated Mitchell's Plain was demarcated for occupation by Coloured people in 1973 while another designated Khayelitsha was allocated for African people in 1984. The two areas were incorporated in one magisterial district, Mitchell's Plain, in the mid-1980s. A sample survey of the area was conducted in late November and early December 2000 with a focus on labour market issues. Its aim was to capture occupants of households aged 18 or older. The survey data has been interrogated to describe the connections between migration, poverty and health in a city where recent rapid urbanisation is changing the demographic profile significantly. As a consequence, the need to provide adequate infrastructure, decent housing and employment poses a daunting challenge ten years after the new democracy has been ushered in.   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Poverty, Racial Segregation, Democracy

Hutzel, Karen (2007). Reconstructing a Community, Reclaiming a Playground: A Participatory Action Research Study, Studies in Art Education: A Journal of Issues and Research in Art Education. This article describes a participatory action research study that examined participant's perceptions of community and of the West End neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio, where the study took place. It is argued that oppressive situations have developed strong collective identities and social capital among residents, which can lead to the development of community art as a catalyst for social change and inform community-based art education. An asset-based art education. An asset-based community art curriculum was implemented and two murals were developed. Results from the study indicate that participants conceive of community, in general, as a safe, happy place that is clean and green, and the West End as a place with strong social bonds despite suffering from trash, violence, and drugs. Results also indicate that participants increasingly realized their own ability to affect change in their community to improve the landscape and promote a cleaner, greener place through art. Data reveal that the community art curriculum contributed to social change in the neighborhood by highlighting the role of neighborhood children and reclaiming a playground that had been associated with drugs and violence.   [More]  Descriptors: Playgrounds, Neighborhoods, Action Research, Participatory Research

Harry, Beth; Klingner,Janette (2007). Discarding the Deficit Model, Educational Leadership. The main criterion for eligibility for special education services in schools has been proof of intrinsic deficit. There are two problems with this focus: First, defining and identifying high-incidence disabilities are ambiguous and subjective processes. Second, the focus on disability has become so intertwined with the historical devaluing of minorities in the United States that these two deficit lens now deeply influence the special education placement process. The end result is a disproportionate placement of some minority groups in special education. Some encouraging directions are underway that may help schools focus on differences rather than on deficits. These include a change in the discrepancy model, the Response to Intervention model (RTI), which focuses on early intervention; and involving parents in the placement process. A new vision of special education is called for in which the notion of disability is reserved for students with clear-cut diagnoses of biological or psychological limitations and the categorization is used only for the purpose of delivering intensive, specialized services in the least restrictive education environment possible.   [More]  Descriptors: Early Intervention, Minority Groups, Special Education, African American Students

Darboe, Kebba; Ahmed, Lul S. (2007). Elderly African Immigrants in Minnesota: A Case Study of Needs Assessment in Eight Cities, Educational Gerontology. Needs assessment is the process of identifying the gap between a target population's needs and its services. If a gap exists, a program can be designed to effectively respond to those needs. This article explores the needs of elderly African immigrants in Minnesota through the use of qualitative interviews. A convenience sampling was used to collect data from 200 available elderly people in eight cities in Minnesota. Data analyses revealed that 90% of them want appropriate nutrition and better delivery of services. Recommendations include support for informal caregivers like family members because these efforts can keep older people at home.   [More]  Descriptors: Older Adults, Caregivers, Needs Assessment, Immigrants

LeBeauf, Ireon; Maples, Mary Finn; D'Andrea, Livia; Watson, Zarus; Packman, Jill (2007). Is Affirmative Action Still Necessary?, Journal of Employment Counseling. The influences of socio-race, racial identity development, gender, educational level, and age on promotion and compensation decisions by midlevel supervisors in industry were examined in this analogue study of 74 midlevel business and industry supervisors. The participants varied in socio-racial classifications, gender, educational levels, and age. Results of this study indicated statistically significant differences in promotion rates of female analogue employees, rates of promotion between White male and Black male supervisors, and the rate of promotion when comparing older versus younger supervisors.   [More]  Descriptors: Industry, Affirmative Action, Racial Identification, Age Differences

Obiakor, Festus E.; Afolayan, Michael O. (2007). African Immigrant Families in the United States: Surviving the Sociocultural Tide, Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families. There exists a significant yet unique level and magnitude of problems that immigrants of African descent have to grapple with in their efforts to settle down into their new American lives. This fact makes the continuity of the natal culture very difficult. However, in spite of their many problems, African immigrants never lose touch with their African homes altogether. As it stands, many African immigrants see education as the key toward achieving their American dream. Thus, in raising their children and in surviving the cultural shocks, they still manage to succeed. In this article, the authors discuss how and why they survive the sociocultural tide and what counselors and service providers can do to help them.   [More]  Descriptors: Democratic Values, Immigrants, African Americans, Cultural Differences

Gayles, Jonathan; Denerville, Daphney (2007). Counting Language: An Exercise in Stigmatization, Multicultural Education. Since the Oakland Unified School District passed its resolution on Ebonics in 1998, Ebonics has been a lightning rod for controversy of all sorts. The utilitarian intent of the original resolution was lost as the debate of Ebonics became intensely political and, to a great extent, marred by existing patterns of racial hierarchy and stigmatization. Lost in this debate is the fact that numerous scholars have entered their support of Ebonics as a rule-governed linguistic system. Despite the immense and variegated body of literature examining Ebonics, few authors have developed strategies to engage the "Ebonics debate" constructively within the university classroom. It is important to pursue meaningful understanding of the possible latent functions of the Ebonics debate in the classroom. In this article, the authors present an exercise that provides a framework for examination of the apparently "natural" preferences for and against certain modes of speaking (MOS). This exercise also encourages students to consider "why" certain MOS are favored while others are stigmatized.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Black Dialects, Educational Policy, Politics of Education, Higher Education

Ong, Paul M.; Stoll, Michael A. (2007). Redlining or Risk? A Spatial Analysis of Auto Insurance Rates in Los Angeles, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. Auto insurance rates can vary dramatically, with much higher premiums in poor and minority areas than elsewhere, even after accounting for individual characteristics, driving history, and coverage. This paper uses a unique data set to examine the relative influence of place-based socioeconomic characteristics (or redlining) and place-based risk factors on the place-based component of automobile insurance premiums. We use a novel approach of combining tract-level census data and car insurance rate quotes from multiple companies for sub-areas within the city of Los Angeles. The quotes are for a hypothetical individual with identical demographic and auto characteristics, driving records, and insurance coverage. This method allows the individual demographic and driving record to be fixed. Multivariate models are then used to estimate the independent contributions of these risk and redlining factors to the place-based component of the car insurance premium. We find that both risk and redlining factors are associated with variations in insurance costs in the place-based component, with black and poor neighborhoods being adversely affected, although risk factors are stronger predictors. However, even after risk factors are taken into account in the model specification, SES factors remain statistically significant. Moreover, simulations show that redlining factors explain more of the gap in auto insurance premiums between black (and Latino) and white neighborhoods and between poor and nonpoor neighborhoods. The findings do not appear sensitive to the individual characteristics of the hypothetical driver.   [More]  Descriptors: Individual Characteristics, Economically Disadvantaged, Motor Vehicles, Risk

Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Keith, Timothy Z. (2007). Improvements in Interval Time Tracking and Effects on Reading Achievement, Psychology in the Schools. This study examined the effect of improvements in timing/rhythmicity on students' reading achievement. 86 participants completed pre- and post-test measures of reading achievement (i.e., Woodcock-Johnson III, Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Test of Word Reading Efficiency, and Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency). Students in the experimental group completed a 4-week intervention designed to improve their timing/rhythmicity by reducing the latency in their response to a synchronized metronome beat, referred to as a synchronized metronome tapping (SMT) intervention. The results from this "non-academic" intervention indicate the experimental group's post-test scores on select measures of reading were significantly higher than the non-treatment control group's scores at the end of 4 weeks. This paper provides a brief overview of domain-general cognitive abilities believed effected by SMT interventions and provides a preliminary hypothesis to explain how this "non-academic" intervention can demonstrate a statistically significant effect on students' reading achievement scores.   [More]  Descriptors: Intervention, Experimental Groups, Cognitive Ability, Scores

Landis, Melodee; Ferguson, Angela; Carballal, Ana; Kuhlman, Wilman; Squires, Sandra (2007). Analyzing an Urban University's Diversity Dilemma, Teacher Education Quarterly. This article examines the efforts of a team of educators in a mid-western urban university in Omaha, Nebraska, to understand why so few persons of color enter the teaching profession and to identify actions that can be taken to attract them. The questions that were posed included the following: (1) What does past research say about recruiting teachers of color?; (2) What is known about various students of color and their career selections?; (3) What information can people gain from mid-west demographic and school enrollment data?; (4) What are the perceptions of local educators concerning the lack of teachers of color?; (5) What types of programs have been successful in increasing the number of teachers of color?; and (6) What recommendations do people make based on these investigations? The data resulting from this study show one central dynamic: the secret to recruiting teachers of color may reside in building relationships, particularly between school and university personnel (often White) and individuals of color, especially those who are potential leaders in their communities and organizations. These relationships must be built on real trust and a common commitment to embracing all people, regardless of differences. It is hoped that this study will provide some guideposts for other teacher education programs who are also faced with low enrollment of persons of color.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Universities, Minority Groups, Teacher Recruitment, Career Choice

Lee, Jennifer; Bean, Frank D. (2007). Reinventing the Color Line: Immigration and America's New Racial/Ethnic Divide, Social Forces. Contemporary nonwhite immigration from Latin America and Asia, increasing racial/ethnic intermarriage, and the growing number of multiracial individuals has made the black-white color line now seem anachronistic in America, consequently raising the question of whether today's color line is evolving in new directions toward either a white-nonwhite divide, a black-nonblack divide, or a new tri-racial hierarchy. In order to gauge the placement of today's color line, we examine patterns of multiracial identification, using both quantitative data on multiracial reporting in the 2000 U.S. Census and in-depth interview data from multiracial individuals with Asian, Latino or black backgrounds. These bodies of evidence suggest that the multiracial identifications of Asians and Latinos (behaviorally and self-perceptually) show much less social distance from whites than from blacks, signaling the likely emergence of a black-nonblack divide that continues to separate blacks from other groups, including new nonwhite immigrants. However, given that the construction of whiteness as a category has been fluid in the past and appears to be stretching yet again, it is also possible that the color line will change still further to even more fully incorporate Asians and Latinos as white, which would mean that the historical black-white divide could again re-emerge.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Differences, African American Students, Foreign Countries, Self Concept

Roach, Ronald (2007). Cause for Action, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. Advocates for a more inclusive legal profession are worried about the recent decline in enrollment of Black students in law school. According to the American Bar Association (ABA), Blacks were 7.4 percent of all law students in 1994. By 2005, that percentage had fallen to just 6.6. Several law journal articles have suggested that the schools themselves are one driving force behind the slumping enrollment. As the schools seek to improve their rankings by admitting students with higher Law School Admissions Test (LSAT) scores, more Blacks are missing the cut. The ABA has also been named as a culprit. Many diversity advocates say the ABA, which is sanctioned by the U.S. Department of Education to handle the accreditation of law schools, has unduly pressured schools to raise minimum LSAT scores. Yet, ABA officials maintain that there is no minimum LSAT requirement. Even with the slight increase in the number of admitted Black students between 2005-2006 and 2006-2007, organizations like the National Bar Association continue to seek concrete remedies to ensure progress in minority admission and graduation rates. Leonard M. Baynes, a law professor at St. John's University School of Law and the director of the Ronald H. Brown Center for Civil Rights and Economic Development who launched the Ronald H. Brown Summer Pre-Law Program in 2005 and helped publish several scholarly articles about law school admissions practices and the schools' reliance on LSAT scores, has played an instrumental role in examining law school admissions practices.   [More]  Descriptors: Legal Education (Professions), Economic Development, Law Students, Civil Rights

Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn (2007). Children's Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Group Attitudes, Ethnic Group Identification, and Self-Esteem, International Journal of Behavioral Development. An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group attitudes, racial and ethnic identification, and self-esteem. Whereas all children exhibited coherent identification with ethnicity defined in terms of family ancestry, only black children identified with ethnicity as defined by racial colour terms. There were no differences in black and white children's self-esteem. Children from both ethnic groups stereotyped only the black character. This stereotyping was stable with age. Positivity was greater towards the black than the white target on implicit and explicit tasks. Negativity towards the white target was evidenced on the implicit task. Positivity, but not stereotyping, was greater on the explicit task compared with the implicit task. Black but not white children's in-group identification was associated with implicit in-group stereotypes. Self-esteem was related to in- and out-group stereotyping and positivity for white but not black children. The implications of these results for social identity development theory and social identity theory are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Children, Ethnicity, Self Esteem, Identification (Psychology)

Maxwell, Lesli A. (2007). "Jena Six": Case Study in Racial Tensions, Education Week. This article reports the racial tensions in Jena, Louisiana. On Aug. 31, 2006, school leaders in Jena, Louisiana, arrived to find two nooses hanging from an oak tree on the campus of Jena High School. The events since that incident–including the beating of a white student and resulting criminal charges against six black schoolmates that have drawn international attention–offer tough lessons for principals and other administrators who must grapple with racial tensions in their schools. For one, principals and teachers can head off such incidents by knowing the sources of conflict and acting to defuse them, experts on race relations say. But when prevention fails, for whatever reason, school leaders should treat such matters seriously, condemn any offensive act, and mete out fair punishment. Communication with students, parents, and the community is crucial to keeping the situation from worsening, and administrators may need to draw on outside mediators for help.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Bias, African American Students, White Students, Violence

Liu, Amy (2007). UCLA Community College Bibliography: Women Community College Presidents, Community College Journal of Research and Practice. This bibliography provides an overview of recent scholarship on female community college presidents. A significant and growing number of women are serving as community college presidents. Specifically, there has been an increase in women community college presidents from 11% in 1991 to nearly 28% in 2001. With more women holding presidencies at community colleges as compared to other types of higher education institutions, examining their characteristics, leadership styles, and decision-making processes provides greater understanding of overall community college management. Included in this bibliography are citations that address the role of women in defining community college culture, the role of gender in presidential communications and leadership, the attributes and behaviors perceived to contribute to success in the community college presidency, and the work/family balance that women community college presidents must attain during their career. The articles and studies cited provide an ideal starting point for further personalized research on women community college presidents.   [More]  Descriptors: College Presidents, Women Administrators, Females, Community Colleges

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