Bibliography: African Americans (page 1212 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Ryan E. Rhodes, Thomas V. O'Brien, Kenneth M. Johnson, Carol Roye, Beatrice Krauss, Jamie E. Scurry, Jill Witmer Sinha, Janet Kupperman, Jomills Henry Braddock, and Tiffany Hunt.

Gose, Ben (2007). The Professoriate Is Increasingly Diverse, but that Didn't Happen by Accident, Chronicle of Higher Education. In 2005, 109,964 U.S. minority scholars held full-time faculty positions at American colleges and universities, up from 69,505 in 1995, according to the Education Department–a 58-percent increase. The proportion of minority scholars in the overall professoriate also rose, but not as much. The department found that 16.5 percent of scholars were from minority groups in 2005, up from 12.7 percent in 1995. Hispanics and Asians experienced the greatest percentage growth: Some 22,818 Hispanics and 48,457 Asians held full-time faculty positions in 2005, both up at least 75 percent from 1995. The growth over that decade for American Indians and black scholars was slightly lower: Some 35,458 black scholars had full-time positions in 2005 (up by nearly a third from 1995), as did 3,231 American Indians (a 50-percent increase). While much has been written about elite institutions' "buying" diversity by offering high salaries to minority professors from other institutions, many colleges and universities are also engaged in serious efforts to expand the pipeline of minority scholars entering academe, particularly in fields where they are most underrepresented.   [More]  Descriptors: Minority Group Teachers, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, African American Teachers

Bernstein, Jeffrey L. (2007). Simulations and the Dynamics of Racial and Gender Gaps in Civic Competence, New Directions for Teaching and Learning. This chapter takes the somewhat unorthodox stance that the central purpose of an introductory political science course is not to prepare students for future political science courses but rather to prepare them for a lifetime of democratic citizenship. It suggests that the way to do this is not by primarily teaching content but by offering opportunities to learn and practice citizenship skills. After detailing the simulation-based course the author had designed to teach these skills, he presents evidence that suggests that this approach may address some long-term inequalities in political participation and engagement across racial and gender lines.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Racial Differences, Gender Differences, Citizen Participation

Lichter, Daniel T.; Johnson, Kenneth M. (2007). The Changing Spatial Concentration of America's Rural Poor Population, Rural Sociology. This paper documents changing patterns of concentrated poverty in nonmetro areas. Data from the Decennial U.S. Census Summary Files show that poverty rates–both overall and for children–declined more rapidly in nonmetro than metro counties in the 1990s. The 1990s also brought large reductions in the number of high-poverty nonmetro counties and declines in the share of rural people, including rural poor people, who were living in them. This suggests that America's rural pockets of poverty may be "drying up" and that spatial inequality in nonmetro America declined over the 1990s, at least at the county level. On a less optimistic note, concentrated poverty among rural minorities remains exceptionally high. Roughly one-half of all rural blacks and one-third of rural Hispanics live in poor counties. Poor minorities are even more highly concentrated in poor areas. Rural children–especially rural minority children–have poverty rates well above national and nonmetro rates, the concentration of rural minority children is often extreme (i.e., over 80% lived in high-poverty counties), and the number of nonmetro counties with high levels of persistent child poverty remains high (over 600 counties). Rural poor children may be more disadvantaged than ever, especially if measured by their lack of access to opportunities and divergence with children living elsewhere. Patterns of poverty among rural children–who often grow up to be poor adults–suggest that recent declines in concentrated rural poverty may be short-lived.   [More]  Descriptors: Rural Population, Poverty, Economically Disadvantaged, Minority Groups

Northington, Cynthia (2007). The Corporal Punishment of Minorities in the Public Schools, Multicultural Perspectives. Corporal punishment is still legal under various circumstances in the United States public schools. This practice is specified in the discipline policies of cities and towns in roughly twenty-two states. Corporal punishment usually takes the form of paddling with wooden paddles or sticks by school administrators with the consent of the parents. Research has shown that this type of punishment is disproportionately administered to minority school children. White students are paddled with far less frequency. Boys are paddled more often than girls over all. This practice teaches school children that it is acceptable for larger, older people to inflict pain on small, younger people. The behavioral and social ramifications for future behavior are ominous.   [More]  Descriptors: Public Schools, Punishment, Discipline Policy, White Students

Scott, Kimberly A. (2007). The Big Men in Blue: Custodians in Three American Schools, Ethnography and Education. Although ubiquitous members of schools, few scholars and/or practitioners recognize how custodians'/caretakers' associations with students reciprocally contribute to student welfare and custodian status. This ethnographic study documents custodians' lived experiences while interacting with young children in three socioeconomically different American school settings. The findings suggest that custodians' contextualized behaviors affect their associations and self-perceptions as professionals. Race and gender complicate this process. Recommendations for how scholars, practitioners, and policy makers can capitalize on custodians' ubiquitous roles and their contextualized self-understanding are provided for consideration.   [More]  Descriptors: Student Welfare, Ethnography, Organizations (Groups), School Personnel

O'Brien, Thomas V. (2007). Perils of Accommodation: The Case of Joseph W. Holley, American Educational Research Journal. This study examines accommodationism, a tactic of racial uplift used by black school founders and teachers in the Jim Crow South. For founders, accommodationism was a dangerous process of collaboration, resistance, and compromise. The subject under study is Joseph Winthrop Holley. Born in South Carolina, Holley studied in the North at Phillips Academy and Lincoln University. Despite a liberal education, Holley returned to the South and founded a Bible and industrial school. Holley was the most conservative founder of his day. His life and work take us beyond the Washington-Du Bois paradigm and help to clarify the work and meaning of accommodationism. The study also evaluates the degree to which conservative forms of schooling became a means for social control.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Control, African Americans, Race, Educational Practices

Azibo, Daudi Ajani ya (2007). Mechanisms of Defense: Nepenthe Theory and Psychiatric Symptomatology, Negro Educational Review, The. Results of exploratory research on defense mechanisms and psychiatric symptomatology are reported about Black students enrolled in classes on the campus of one Historically Black College and University. Theoretical influences are twofold: ego mechanisms of defense conceptualized hierarchically and a culture-specific view of defense mechanism functioning. Exploratory hypotheses are: that defense style does exist, that an identifiable pattern in defense styles is consistent with nepenthe theory, and that defense styles will correlate with psychiatric symptoms. Instruments used were the Defense Style Questionnaire and the Derogatis' Symptom Checklist 90-R. Defense style conceptualized as encompassing a hierarchical continuum from adaptive-to-maladaptive functioning was found to be a valid construct for these students. Also, the self-sacrificing defense style correlated inversely with symptom distress. Both theoretical influences received support, but the necessity of the culture-specific formulation was firmly implicated.   [More]  Descriptors: Black Colleges, Social Isolation, Alienation, Defense Mechanisms

Scurry, Jamie E.; Littky, Dennis (2007). The Big Picture College: A Model High School Program Graduates, New England Journal of Higher Education. The Providence-based Big Picture Company has transformed the American high school experience for low-income, urban students. Now it is ready to take on a new challenge: redesigning the American college. In this article, the authors discuss how the Big Picture College will build a curriculum that emphasizes students' interests, integrates coursework with internships and groups students in teams that work together on real-life, collaborative projects.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, High Schools, Graduates, African American Students

Blanchard, Chris M.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Eric; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Baker, Frank; Hunt, Tiffany (2007). Ethnicity as a Moderator of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Physical Activity in College Students, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. Most college students do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines, and ethnic disparities exist. The present study examined the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in explaining PA intentions and behavior in black and white college students and whether any TPB relationships were moderated by ethnicity. Black (n = 170) and white (n = 180) students completed a baseline TPB questionnaire and PA assessment 2 weeks later. Hierarchical latent variable regression analyses showed that affective attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were significant predictors of intention for both ethnic groups, whereas the PBC-intention relationship was significantly stronger for white students. Intention significantly predicted PA for both ethnic groups. Furthermore, common and ethnic-specific beliefs were identified.   [More]  Descriptors: Behavior Theories, College Students, Ethnicity, Physical Activity Level

Roye, Carol; Perlmutter Silverman, Paula; Krauss, Beatrice (2007). A Brief, Low-Cost, Theory-Based Intervention to Promote Dual Method Use by Black and Latina Female Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial, Health Education & Behavior. HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects young women of color. Young women who use hormonal contraception are less likely to use condoms. Brief, inexpensive HIV-prevention interventions are needed for high-volume clinics. This study was a randomized clinical trial of two interventions: (a) a video made for this study and (b) an adaptation of Project RESPECT counseling. Four hundred Black and Latina teenage women completed a questionnaire about their sexual behaviors and were randomly assigned to (a) see the video, (b) get counseling, (c) see the video and get counseling, or (d) receive usual care. At 3-month follow-up, those who saw the video and received counseling were 2.5 times more likely to have used a condom at last intercourse with their main partner than teens in the usual care group. These differences did not persist at 12-month follow-up. This suggests that a brief intervention can positively affect condom use in the short term.   [More]  Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Contraception, Intervention, Females

Baker, Sarah; Homan, Shane (2007). Rap, Recidivism and the Creative Self: A Popular Music Programme for Young Offenders in Detention, Journal of Youth Studies. Popular music is increasingly being viewed by local, state and national governments as a useful form of creative activity for at-risk youth both within and outside young offender institutions. This paper examines a music programme operating for a group of predominantly black youth within one North American detention centre, and considers the range of benefits observed in fostering individual creativity, self-esteem and social communication. Popular music programmes–in this case, rapping and basic music sequencing and composition–offer a highly practical and direct means of allowing youth offenders to express a particular form of creativity in connection with their existing music and cultural interests. This paper considers the relative success of one programme and the implications for drawing upon hip-hop music, with its themes of deviance and resistance, as a creative vehicle within a broader environment of "offender to citizen" discourses for the youth involved.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Children, Creativity, Music, Creative Activities

Quinn, Therese M. (2007). "You Make Me Erect!": Queer Girls of Color Negotiating Heteronormative Leadership at an Urban All-Girls' Public School, Journal of Gay & Lesbian Issues in Education. This article focuses on the concept of leadership endorsed by an urban all-girls' public school and how heteronormative ideas about female success were resisted by a group of the school's gay students through gender performances and named sexualities. The author argues that queer students are gender projects that the school uses to define and regulate appropriate behavior. Schools should define promoted goals like leadership in context with youth and urges broader consideration of how school employment conditions affect the safety of queer youth and teachers.   [More]  Descriptors: Leadership, Public Schools, Urban Schools, Single Sex Schools

Smith, Bettye P. (2007). Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness: An Analysis of End-of-Course Faculty Evaluations, College Student Journal. The purpose of this study was to describe student ratings of teaching effectiveness for faculty in the College of Education (COE) at a Research I institution in the Southern United States. Student ratings of teaching effectiveness were analyzed for the 190 tenure-track faculty in this study based on race (White, Black, and "Other" racial groups which included Asians, Latinos, and Native-Americans). Three academic years of undergraduate and graduate level courses combined were used to analyze student ratings for 28 items (26 multidimensional and 2 global) on the end-of-course evaluation form. Mean ratings indicated that White faculty and faculty identified as "Other" executed the 26 multidimensional items "often" in their teaching, whereas Black faculty executed 16 multidimensional items "often" in their teaching and ten items were executed "occasionally". On the two global items ("overall value of course and overall teaching ability"), student ratings were "very good" for White faculty and faculty who were identified as "Other," and "good" for Black faculty. White faculty had significantly higher mean scores than Black faculty on the composite of multidimensional items and the two global items.   [More]  Descriptors: Race, Student Evaluation of Teacher Performance, Course Evaluation, Teacher Effectiveness

Sinha, Jill Witmer (2007). Youth at Risk for Truancy Detour into a Faith-Based Education Program: Their Perceptions of the Program and Its Impact, Research on Social Work Practice. Many minority adolescents in the United States today are at a high risk for truancy, dropout, and academic under-achievement. Truancy is related to a host of preceding and subsequent risks such as delinquency and limited vocational outcomes. Using participatory research methods, this federally funded, 10-month study assessed youths' perceptions of a publicly funded, faith-based, alternative education program with 73 minority youth participants who were at risk for truancy. The study assessed whether change occurred in peer dynamics, youths' use of time, and educational aspirations. The program was found to have a positive impact on peer dynamics and the use of both school hours and free time. The program supported or did not hamper educational aspiration. Implications about the impact of alternative education programs for at-risk youth and the faith-based nature of the program are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Nontraditional Education, Truancy, Leisure Time, Attitude Measures

Braddock, Jomills Henry; Hua, Lv; Dawkins, Marvin P. (2007). Effects of Participation in High School Sports and Nonsport Extracurricular Activities on Political Engagement among Black Young Adults, Negro Educational Review, The. The impact of involvement in high school athletics and nonsport extracurricular activities on political engagement among young Black adults was examined. We developed a conceptual model to identify school engagement factors and assess their influence on political participation (i.e., voter registration and voting behavior) of Blacks in early adulthood. Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analyses revealed that participation in varsity individual sports and participation in nonsport extracurricular activities have significant net effects on political participation. Furthermore, the effects of participation in these school engagement activities are mediated by educational attainment. However, the effect of participation in varsity team sports on political participation is not significant. While our study confirmed the importance of participation in school engaging extracurricular activities, both sport and nonsport, in shaping political engagement of Blacks in early adulthood, the model was only partially confirmed. Limitations and implications of these findings for future research are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Extracurricular Activities, Team Sports, Voting, Student Participation

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