Bibliography: African Americans (page 1210 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Dylan Conger, Patrice Iatarola, June Christian, Elizabeth A. Mullikin, Rebecca Rogers, Derald Wing Sue, Linda Hamilton, Roxanne A. Donovan, Mark C. Long, and Keith Robinson.

Rogers, Rebecca; Christian, June (2007). "What Could I Say?" A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Construction of Race in Children's Literature, Race, Ethnicity and Education. This article analyzes the construction of Whiteness in children's literature that intentionally brings Whiteness to the surface. We wondered: do the authors re-center Whiteness in their attempts to racialize White people? What literary strategies and linguistic techniques do the authors call on to present Whiteness and, subsequently, Blackness? Using a combination of critical analyses including intertextual and hermeneutical analyses as well as critical discourse analysis, we foreground the reconstructive and deconstructive aspects of White people talking about race. Our empirical analysis also relied on transactional theories of reading informed by cultural criticism and Whiteness studies. We focus on four themes that cut across the books in our findings: White talk, colorblind theories of race, historicizing racism, and the privileging effect. We demonstrate the ways in which the talk in texts between White characters sometimes recenters Whiteness and other times disrupts Whiteness as the center. We discuss our cooperative reflexivity as an inter-racial research team conducting this inquiry. The following are appended: (1) Analyzing children's literature: book clubs; and (2) Noticing and naming White talk: forms and functions (see also Rogers & Mosley, 2006).   [More]  Descriptors: Discourse Analysis, Childrens Literature, Whites, Racial Attitudes

Harris, Tina M. (2007). Black Feminist Thought and Cultural Contracts: Understanding the Intersection and Negotiation of Racial, Gendered, and Professional Identities in the Academy, New Directions for Teaching and Learning. This chapter explores identity negotiation by women of color in academe at a predominantly white institution. The author discusses use of the title "doctor" as a form of address to manage interactions with graduate students in the college classroom, and the difficulties associated with negotiating and balancing these diverse and complex identities in an oppressive context.   [More]  Descriptors: Graduate Students, College Faculty, Sexual Identity, Racial Identification

Whitney, Jennifer D. (2007). The Diversity Disconnection: Discourse in Mainstream Literacy Instruction, Online Submission. The idea of what constitutes literacy in the classroom is mostly determined by middle-class school officials and state and federal administrators. The discourse of minority populations is marginalized and not readily recognized or incorporated into mainstream instruction. This impacts not only the ability of these students to be accountable members of the classroom community but also their future chances of becoming powerful members of a society whose voices are heard and respected. There are many reasons why a student might struggle to perform in the literacy classroom. For the purposes of this paper, I focus on current and relevant studies that can be generalized to determine the cultural and class factors at play in this issue.   [More]  Descriptors: Literacy, Classroom Environment, Minority Groups, Equal Education

Constantine, Madonna G.; Sue, Derald Wing (2007). Perceptions of Racial Microaggressions among Black Supervisees in Cross-Racial Dyads, Journal of Counseling Psychology. Perceived racial microaggressions by White supervisors were examined through a qualitative analysis of 10 self-identified Black doctoral supervisees in counseling and clinical psychology. Results indicated 7 microaggression themes directed toward this group: (a) invalidating racial-cultural issues, (b) making stereotypic assumptions about Black clients, (c) making stereotypic assumptions about Black supervisees, (d) reluctance to give performance feedback for fear of being viewed as racist, (e) focusing primarily on clinical weaknesses, (f) blaming clients of color for problems stemming from oppression, and (g) offering culturally insensitive treatment recommendations. The impact of these racial microaggressions was found to be detrimental to Black trainees, the supervisory relationship, and, indirectly, to clients of color. Implications of the findings are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Supervisor Supervisee Relationship, Clinical Psychology, Counselor Training, Whites

Donovan, Roxanne A. (2007). To Blame or Not to Blame: Influences of Target Race and Observer Sex on Rape Blame Attribution, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. There is a paucity of research on the influence of racist and sexist stereotypes in rape blame attribution, including the jezebel and matriarch stereotypes of Black women. This study extends the literature by examining how victim race, perpetrator race, and participant sex affect perceptions of a rape survivor's promiscuity (jezebel stereotype) and strength and/or toughness (matriarch stereotype). The myth of the Black male sexual predator of White women is also investigated. Data provided partial support for the jezebel stereotype. There were also contradictory findings supporting and challenging the acceptance of the Black rapist of White women stereotype. No significant differences were found for the matriarch stereotype. Reasons for and implications of findings are explored.   [More]  Descriptors: Stereotypes, Whites, Rape, African Americans

Conger, Dylan; Long, Mark C.; Iatarola, Patrice (2009). Explaining Race, Poverty, and Gender Disparities in Advanced Course-Taking, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. We use panel data on Florida high school students to examine race, poverty, and gender disparities in advanced course-taking. While white students are more likely to take advanced courses than black and Hispanic students, these disparities are eliminated when we condition on observable pre-high school characteristics. In fact, black and Hispanic students are more likely than observably similar white students to take advanced courses. Controlling for students' pre-high school characteristics substantially reduces poverty gaps, modestly reduces Asian-white gaps, and makes little dent in female-male gaps. Black and Hispanic students attend high schools that increase their likelihood of taking advanced courses relative to observably similar white students; this advantage is largely driven by minorities disproportionately attending magnet schools. Finally, recent federal and state efforts aimed at increasing access to advanced courses to poor and minority students appear to have succeeded in raising the share of students who take advanced courses from 2003 to 2006. However, secular trends (or spillovers of the policies to non-poor, non-minority students) have spurred faster growth for other students, contributing to widening demographic gaps in these years.   [More]  Descriptors: High School Students, Student Characteristics, Enrollment, Advanced Placement Programs

Freudenberg, Nicholas; Ruglis, Jessica (2007). Reframing School Dropout as a Public Health Issue. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy. Volume 4, Number 4, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Good education predicts good health, and disparities in health and in educational achievement are closely linked. Despite these connections, public health professionals rarely make reducing the number of students who drop out of school a priority, although nearly one-third of all students in the United States and half of black, Latino, and American Indian students do not graduate from high school on time. In this article, we summarize knowledge on the health benefits of high school graduation and discuss the pathways by which graduating from high school contributes to good health. We examine strategies for reducing school dropout rates with a focus on interventions that improve school completion rates by improving students' health. Finally, we recommend actions health professionals can take to reframe the school dropout rate as a public health issue and to improve school completion rates in the United States.   [More]  Descriptors: Chronic Illness, Dropout Rate, Dropouts, Health Personnel

Harris, Angel L.; Robinson, Keith (2007). Schooling Behaviors or Prior Skills? A Cautionary Tale of Omitted Variable Bias within Oppositional Culture Theory, Sociology of Education. Prior research on oppositional culture theory has generally focused on beliefs about the opportunity structure, or the "acting white" hypothesis, as an explanation for racial differences in school achievement. However, little attention has been given to the mechanism by which these beliefs affect achievement: schooling behaviors. The authors posit that students' prior level of skills may be an important omitted factor that biases the effect of schooling behaviors on achievement. Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey, they found that whereas behaviors account for a larger proportion of Asian Americans' achievement advantage than do prior skills, prior skills explain half to nearly three-quarters of blacks' low achievement relative to that of whites and that dramatic declines in behavioral effects on achievement are observed after prior skills are controlled. Finally, the findings show that schooling behaviors are partially shaped by prior skills. They suggest that students with low skill levels prior to high school are likely to have poor achievement at the end of their high school careers, regardless of their schooling behaviors during high school.   [More]  Descriptors: Low Achievement, Racial Differences, Asian Americans, Academic Achievement

Hemmings, Annette B. (2007). Seeing the Light: Cultural and Social Capital Productions in an Inner-City High School, High School Journal. Youth advocates employed in a school-to-work program in an inner-city public high school promoted the college attainments of low-income Black students through the production of cultural and social capital. Analysis framed by cultural reproduction and production theories explicate how they inverted the ideological aims of the program; redefined their roles as "surrogate" middle-class parents; generated cultural productions through reality therapy; and created useful links to social resources and networks. Youth advocates changed the educational trajectory of some students. But there were other students who used cultural and social capital in productions that kept them closely tied to their families, neighborhoods, and local workplaces.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Areas, Social Capital, African Americans, High School Students

Kelly, Hilton (2007). Racial Tokenism in the School Workplace: An Exploratory Study of Black Teachers in Overwhelmingly White Schools, Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association. This article examines how Black teachers in overwhelmingly White schools evaluate their work experiences as both numerical and racial minorities. I extend Kanter's (1977) theory of tokenism through a look at how ideology shapes the work experiences and evaluations of racial tokens. Kanter developed a framework that outlined 3 general processes associated with token representation: performance pressures, boundary heightening, and role entrapment. In this exploratory study, I show how token Black teachers positioned themselves as heroic individualists who managed numerical and racial processes in schools. More specifically, I show how participants used traditional civil rights ideology to justify and to evaluate positive aspects of racial tokenism, emphasizing performance enhancers, border crossing, and role integration. This article rethinks claims in educational research that token Black teachers face only negative work experiences due to Black and White differences in a White school culture. The conclusion is a discussion about how the work experiences of successful token Black teachers raise foundational issues for educational policy and practice.   [More]  Descriptors: Tokenism, African American Teachers, Work Environment, Teacher Role

Williams, Monica G. (2007). National Focus on Postmodernism in Higher Education, Online Submission. The integration of postmodernism in higher education is a widely debated issue. Critics of postmodernism in higher education hold the position that postmodernism breeds an unruliness of knowledge. Academicians in higher education often choose to educate students through means of prescription rather than implementing innovation in classroom delivery and instruction. By placing more emphasis on what is commonplace in the classroom and less focus on what is of interest to the 21st Century adult student, higher education institutions will begin to experience a rapid decline in enrollment. The purpose of this manuscript is to examine challenges in implementing postmodernistic strategies in higher education.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Postmodernism, Educational Innovation, Teaching Methods

Gordon, Jane Anna (2007). Failures of Language and Laughter: Anna Julia Cooper and Contemporary Problems of Humanistic Pedagogy, Philosophical Studies in Education. This essay briefly explores reflections of Anna Julia Cooper concerning the meaning and significance of moments within educational settings when the conditions for laughter and language break down. The author suggests that what she presented as moments of social and political failure have become the aims of contemporary, rigid nonpromotion public school curricula. The success of such narrow training, in other words, turns on the eradication of necessarily contingent intersubjective classroom relations that Cooper described as the tragic consequence of ongoing challenges to the legitimacy of black teachers and the trauma of lynch law. Cooper's prescription–that a coherent understanding of the role of teachers and of schooling requires reintroducing questions of purpose, value, and meaning, of who we as individuals and as a society seek to become–emerges as an equally relevant resource for enlarging the language for defending the ongoing necessity of humanistic education. Her thought offers a viable critique of and alternative to the tough-love approaches that dominate contemporary public education in the United States, particularly those of the No Child Left Behind program.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Role, Humor, Humanism, Educational Philosophy

Mullikin, Elizabeth A.; Bakken, Lori L.; Betz, Nancy E. (2007). Assessing Research Self-Efficacy in Physician-Scientists: The Clinical Research APPraisal Inventory, Journal of Career Assessment. Between 1980 and 1993, only 19% of medical school graduates chose faculty appointments with research responsibilities. Women and minorities represent only a small fraction of these, despite their growing numbers. The authors' goal is to study the effects of human agency, particularly self-efficacy, on the career development of physician researchers, especially women and people of color; therefore, we developed a reliable and valid inventory for assessing clinical research self-efficacy in a population of physicians training for clinical research careers. Scale items were pooled from expert knowledge, relevant literature, and existing inventories to create a 92-item Clinical Research Appraisal Inventory that was factor analyzed and refined to include 88 items. Although instruments have been developed to successfully assess research self-efficacy, this is the first instrument designed to assess self-efficacy in the clinical research domain using a population of academic physicians.   [More]  Descriptors: Physicians, Females, Self Efficacy, Career Development

Vanneman, Alan; Hamilton, Linda; Anderson, Janet Baldwin; Rahman, Taslima (2009). Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2009-455, National Center for Education Statistics. Mathematics and reading scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) have increased among students attending elementary and secondary schools since the first time the assessment was administered. These score increases have been observed both for Black and White students; statistically significant score differences between the two racial/ethnic groups have also been observed. This statistical analysis report, "Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National Assessment of Educational Progress," examines achievement gaps between Black and White public-school students at both the national and state levels. The report uses data from two assessment programs–main NAEP and Long-Term Trend (LTT) NAEP. While both programs assess reading and mathematics, they are different in three major respects: (1) main NAEP assesses performance of students in 4th- and 8th-grades, while LTT NAEP assesses performance of students ages 9 and 13; (2) main NAEP reports results for both the national and state levels, while LTT NAEP reports results for the national level only; (3) main NAEP was first administered in the 1990s, while LTT NAEP was first administered in the 1970s. The report uses results from all assessment years including the 2007 main NAEP and the 2004 LTT NAEP. All results are for public school students. The percentages of Black and White students in individual states vary by state. Some states' trends could not be reported because there were not enough Black or White students in the sample to have reportable results. This report is organized as follows. Following an introduction, the remainder of this report presents first mathematics and then reading results. In each section, long-term trend results are presented first, giving national results only for public school students ages 9 and 13. These are followed by both national and state results for public school fourth- and eighth-graders from main NAEP. National data from main NAEP are also presented by (1) gender; and (2) eligibility categories for the National School Lunch Program. The last section consists of two appendixes that contain relevant technical notes and supplemental tables. (Contains 12 footnotes, 11 tables, and 24 figures.) [This report was prepared under a project of the NAEP Education Statistics Services Institute (NAEP-ESSI) of the American Institutes for Research (AIR) in support of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). For the report highlights, see ED505902.]   [More]  Descriptors: Public Schools, Lunch Programs, National Competency Tests, Statistical Analysis

Fry, Richard (2007). The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of U.S. Public Schools, Pew Hispanic Center. This report provides the most up-to-date snapshot available of the ethnic and racial composition of the public schools educating the nation's pre-kindergarten through 12th-grade students; it also compares this 2005-06 portrait with the same portrait taken in the 1993-94 school year. Levels of racial and ethnic segregation and integration in the public schools are, of course, affected by factors other than the demographic changes in the school population at large. They are affected by the geographic dispersion of racial and ethnic groups; by local residential housing patterns; and by desegregation policies at the school district level. This report however tracks the changes over a 12-year period in the levels of racial and ethnic isolation and exposure in public schools among black, white, Hispanic and Asian students. The report provides detailed tabulations of school enrollment at the state level and finds that in nearly every state white students became more exposed to minority students since 1993-94. In many states Hispanic students and black students have diminished exposure to white students.   [More]  Descriptors: Minority Groups, White Students, Racial Composition, Public Schools

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