Bibliography: African Americans (page 1208 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Evelyn O. Talbott, John Kambutu, Amanda Magora, Atika Khurana, Sheila R. Pratt, Deanna L. Wilkinson, Amy E. Hillier, Christiana M. Russell, Xiaohui Xu, and Neil K. Mehta.

Lockette, Tim (2009). Crossing the Gap, Teaching Tolerance. In a nation where education is funded largely by local property taxes, schools in wealthy communities have plenty of funds to spend on programs that get their kids ready for college. Schools in poor communities scrimp and save to get the job done–or hope that funding from the state will help fill in the gap. This article describes how students from both sides of Chicago's school-funding divide are coming together to demand equality. In the process, they're crossing barriers of race and social class.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Class, Low Income Groups, Educational Equity (Finance), Equal Education

Pendarvis, Edwina; Wood, Ellen Wallace (2009). Eligibility of Historically Underrepresented Students Referred for Gifted Education in a Rural School District: A Case Study, Journal for the Education of the Gifted. This case study describes a rural school district's efforts to identify historically underrepresented gifted students (HUGS) more effectively than in the past. The district developed new policy; disseminated the policy with lists of characteristics of HUGS; provided a workshop for first-grade teachers to encourage early referrals; and provided alternative tests to students who were referred for evaluation and who scored at least one standard deviation above the mean on an individually administered comprehensive intelligence test, but who did not score high enough to qualify for placement according to state regulations. Of the historically underrepresented children referred for testing, 29% qualified for placement in the gifted program. The county's efforts appeared to increase placement of HUGS; however, the new policy excluded some HUGS who would have been identified under the old policy. Consequently, the county made a decision to combine elements of the new and old policies.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Rural Schools, Academically Gifted, School Districts, Counties

Ikomi, Philip A.; Rodney, H. Elaine; McCoy, Tana (2009). Male Juveniles with Sexual Behavior Problems: Are There Differences among Racial Groups?, Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. This study used archival data on a sample of 186,492 referrals from a southwestern state Juvenile Probation Commission to compare the characteristics of 5,439 male Black, Hispanic, and White juveniles with sexual behavior problems on the five most common sexual offenses in the data set. The characteristics of 181,053 juveniles of the three races without sexual behavior problems were also compared on the basis of the seven most common nonsexual offenses. The bases of comparison were the seven variables: reported incidence of sexual offenses, the primary caregivers or living arrangements, age, suspected sexual abuse, suspected emotional abuse, suspected physical abuse, and special education status, on which racial differences were found. Prevention and treatment implications of findings are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Race, Behavior Problems, Sexual Abuse, Caregivers

Kohli, Rita (2009). Critical Race Reflections: Valuing the Experiences of Teachers of Color in Teacher Education, Race, Ethnicity and Education. While research has demonstrated that White teachers often must be taught about the pain of racism in order to not perpetuate it, this may not apply to racial minority teachers. Through personal experience, Teachers of Color are likely aware of the trauma that racism can cause students. Within teacher education, we must create research and teaching strategies that acknowledge racial minority teachers as insiders to the experiences of racism in school, and as valuable assets in the fight for educational justice. Using a critical race theory (CRT) framework, this article explores the reflections of Women of Color educators regarding their encounters and observations with race and racism in K-12 schools. Qualitative interviews were conducted with twelve Asian-American, Black and Latina women enrolled in a social justice teacher preparation program in Los Angeles. Their stories expose (1) the personal experiences with racism the women endured within their K-12 education; (2) the parallel experiences with racism they observe Students of Color enduring in schools today; and (3) racial hierarchies within teacher education. This data highlights a cycle of racism that continues to manifest in the educational experiences of Asian-American, Black and Latina/o youth. Additionally, the important stories and ideas revealed through the process of this research draws attention to the personal knowledge teacher preparation programs can tap into when training Teachers of Color about educational inequality.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, Teacher Education, Race, Critical Theory

Kambutu, John; Rios, Francisco; Castaneda, Carmelita (2009). Stories Deep Within: Narratives of U.S. Teachers of Color from Diasporic Settings, Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education. In this qualitative investigation, racial and ethnic minority teachers (N = 6) used personal stories to elucidate their experiences with social injustices that have impacted their teaching in rural schools. These counter-stories serve to disrupt orthodox conceptions of teachers of color, to resituate their work in their cultural positions, and to demonstrate the ways in which their experiences with oppression and resistance affect their teaching in rural settings.   [More]  Descriptors: Rural Schools, Minority Group Teachers, Personal Narratives, Teaching Experience

Donohue, Nicholas C. (2009). Our Most Valuable Population: The Case for Disconnected Young Adults, New England Journal of Higher Education. In May, President Obama stated the need for every American to have at least one year of postsecondary education. That sentiment echoes the Nellie Mae Education Foundation's 2008 report, "What It Takes to Succeed in the 21st Century–and How New Englanders Are Faring." The report cites a growing consensus that reveals the minimum indicator of the skills and knowledge necessary for success as a two-year postsecondary credential of some kind. Working toward this goal becomes even more challenging when one considers the large number of young adults, ages 16 to 24, across the region who are unemployed and not enrolled in school. There are now far too many disconnected young adults across the region and nationally. While more likely to be from underserved populations, disconnected young adults are still a diverse group: (1) teen parents; (2) adolescents in the foster system; (3) youth involved with the juvenile justice system; (4) recent immigrants struggling to learn English; (5) high school students who are one or more years behind their graduating class; and (6) youth who have already dropped out. The longer young adults are disconnected, the less likely they will ever engage with the postsecondary opportunities that could turn their lives around. Today's disconnected young adults are at high risk of spending the rest of their lives as members of the working poor. To reverse this trend, it is important to work harder to engage this population with postsecondary opportunities. In this article, the author describes some of the model programs that are trying to engage New England's disconnected young adults with postsecondary opportunities.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Graduation Rate, Young Adults, Late Adolescents, Juvenile Justice

Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Russell, Christiana M.; Khurana, Atika (2009). Predicting Educational Risks among Court-Involved Black Males: Family, Peers, and Mental Health Issues, Negro Educational Review. Disproportionately large numbers of Black youth experience repeated encounters with the juvenile justice system, and often these same youth present with a variety of school-related difficulties. Data from a sample of 842 Black males, assessed in five Ohio juvenile courts using the Global Risk Assessment Device (GRAD), are used to describe the different types of educational risks faced by these youth, including factors concerned with classroom behavior, student learning, and threats to academic progress. Additionally, the results of multivariate analyses are presented that provide support for the notion that disrupted family processes, delinquent peer associations, and mental health issues in combination present a compelling picture of factors associated with both in-class behavior and educational setbacks. At the same time, information is generated that points to the unique influence of mental health issues on learning difficulties faced by these court-involved youth.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Children, Learning Problems, Student Behavior, Academic Achievement

Dorris, Ronald (2009). Race as a Social Construct: The Impact on Education, Forum on Public Policy Online. Today as part of the network of globalization, the United States is trailing through the 21st century on the note of an unfinished past. As a legally segregated entity of United States citizenry from 1896-1954, people of African descent largely would be on their own when it came to creating a positive self-image. Those who genuinely sought to contribute to a climate for change and growth were hopeful that experimentation with democracy at the expense of Africans in the United States eventually would cease. When the Supreme Court "Plessy v. Ferguson" (1896) ruling that had rendered "separate but equal" was overturned with "Brown v. Board of Education-Topeka, KS" (1954), the latter opinion for the majority informed desegregation relative to education would go forward "with all deliberate speed." Given those deliberately throwing roadblocks at speed instead of speeding up a process would slow down that process for years to come. In addition to the snail pace, another major development was unfolding. The United States closed out domestic social involvement in the 20th century by shifting policy from a banner of "segregation" to "de-segregation" and not to "integration". Hence policy central to equitable and quality education remains unaligned with human rights in the 21st century.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Quality, Economic Impact, Democratic Values, Desegregation Litigation

Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K. (2009). Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity, Social Forces. Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black racial isolation is associated with a higher body mass index and higher odds of obesity among women, but not men, highlighting important sex differences in the influence of neighborhood structure on health. Furthermore, the influence of high racial isolation on women's weight status is mediated, in part, by the physically disordered nature of such neighborhoods. Disorder of a more social nature (as measured by incident crime) is not associated with weight status.   [More]  Descriptors: Neighborhoods, Obesity, Body Composition, Females

Wilkinson, Deanna L.; Magora, Amanda; Garcia, Marie; Khurana, Atika (2009). Fathering at the Margins of Society: Reflections from Young, Minority, Crime-Involved Fathers, Journal of Family Issues. This study aims to broaden researchers' understanding of fatherhood by focusing on an understudied population of young, urban, minority, crime-involved fathers. Using 115 qualitative life history interviews, the authors examine fatherhood expectations, role participation, and ideals. Study fathers described very similar ideals for being fathers (e.g., providing financial resources, caring, basic needs, spending time together, and being a role model) as have been reported by less disadvantaged men. Aspects of the father's life-course trajectory and ecological niche were important for understanding individual differences in fathering behaviors. Consistent with life-course principles, those fathers with fewer developmental assets were more likely to be uninvolved. Specifically, we found that being young, Puerto Rican, detached from the child's mother, low in human capital, and involved in crime were associated with being absent. The findings suggest that young fathers experiencing cumulative disadvantage face multiple challenges that inhibit their ability to reach their fatherhood expectations.   [More]  Descriptors: Human Capital, Crime, Fathers, Puerto Ricans

Pratt, Sheila R.; Kuller, Lewis; Talbott, Evelyn O.; McHugh-Pemu, Kathleen; Buhari, Alhaji M.; Xu, Xiaohui (2009). Prevalence of Hearing Loss in Black and White Elders: Results of the Cardiovascular Health Study, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of age, gender, and race on the prevalence and severity of hearing loss in elder adults, aged 72-96 years, after accounting for income, education, smoking, and clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Air-conduction thresholds for standard and extended high-frequency pure-tones were obtained from a cohort of 548 (out of 717) elderly adults (ages 72-96 years) who were recruited during the Year 11 clinical visit (1999-2000) of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) at the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania site. Participant smoking, income, education, and cardiovascular disease histories were obtained from the CHS database and were included as factors. Results: Hearing loss was more common and more severe for the participants in their 80s than for those in their 70s–the men more than the women and the White participants more than the Black participants. The inclusion of education, income, smoking, and cardiovascular disease (clinical and subclinical) histories as factors did not substantively impact the overall results. Conclusion: Although the data reported in this article were cross-sectional and a cohort phenomenon might have been operational, they suggested that hearing loss is more substantive in the 8th than the 7th decade of life and that race and gender influence this decline in audition. Given the high prevalence in the aging population and the differences across groups, there is a clear need to understand the nature and causes of hearing loss across various groups in order to improve prevention and develop appropriate interventions.   [More]  Descriptors: Income, Smoking, Incidence, Diseases

Taylor, L. Hill, Jr.; Helfenbein, Robert J. (2009). Mapping Everyday: Gender, Blackness, and Discourse in Urban Contexts, Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association. This article argues that by using theories of the spatial to understand how situated materiality (i.e., place) and contestations of identity matter when conceiving global and curricular space, educators may interrupt and rearticulate practices and systems of oppression. By focusing on globalization writ large, there is danger of leaving important concerns of the local unattended, and thereby failing to see how processes of globalization exacerbate problematic and oft-hidden curricular issues. Such diversions typify the most insidious quality of the current form of globalization; that is: an articulation of ubiquitous, uniform, and systemically oppressive social scripts. Through the contestation of such scripts, this article focuses on the achievement of better spaces when gender and race are involved. We offer a discussion of curriculum where students write about and argue against the dominant representations of their lives in Washington, DC. Concluding meditations stress that a new conceptual frame is needed in everyday curriculum theorizing, one that enables a reconstruction of curriculum theorists' positionalities with regard to our support, or rerouting, of the scripts that enable globalized systems of oppression and occlusion.   [More]  Descriptors: Self Concept, Multicultural Education, Global Approach, Theory Practice Relationship

Smith, Bettye P. (2009). Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness for Faculty Groups Based on Race and Gender, Education. The purpose of this study was to describe student ratings of teaching effectiveness in a College of Education at a Southern Research I institution for faculty groups based on race and gender. Student ratings for undergraduate, graduate, and undergraduate and graduate courses combined, were used to determine the teaching effectiveness for the 190 tenure-track faculty in six groups of faculty (White males, White females, Black males, Black females, male faculty from "Other" racial groups, and female faculty from "Other" racial groups). Of the 36 items on the end-of-course evaluation form, the two global items–"overall value of course" and "overall teaching ability"–are reported. On "overall value of course," student ratings were "very good" for four of the six faculty groups and "good" for the remaining two groups. On "overall teaching ability," student ratings were "very good" for half of the faculty groups and "good" for the remaining half. "Very good" indicates a rating above 4.0 on a 5.0 scale while "good" indicates a rating below 4.0, but higher than 3.0 on a 5.0 scale.   [More]  Descriptors: Student Evaluation of Teacher Performance, Undergraduate Students, Graduate Students, Teacher Effectiveness

Reck, Jen (2009). Homeless Gay and Transgender Youth of Color in San Francisco: "No One Likes Street Kids"–Even in the Castro, Journal of LGBT Youth. This study, focused on five transgender and gay youth of color from San Francisco, explored how family problems, poverty, homophobia, and transphobia propelled them into homelessness and made gay-friendly spaces and resources especially meaningful to them. These young people describe seeking support in San Francisco's well-known gay enclave, the Castro District, to form community and find safety from a homophobic and transphobic world. This study also explored difficulties these youth face as homeless LGBTQ young people of color navigating this neighborhood, which is widely considered a safe haven for LGBTQ people. In the Castro, they experienced invisibility, police and community harassment, sexualization, and commodification. Finally, this article examined how participation in a visible gay neighborhood contributed to their vulnerability yet offered marginally housed transgender and gay youth of color an important space to explore their identities.   [More]  Descriptors: Neighborhoods, Family Problems, Homeless People, Young Adults

MacDonald, John M.; Haviland, Amelia; Morral, Andrew R. (2009). Assessing the Relationship between Violent and Nonviolent Criminal Activity among Serious Adolescent Offenders, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. Understanding the progression of violent and nonviolent criminal activity remains a matter of theoretical debate. In the present study, the authors build on criminological theory and assess the extent to which the progression of violent and nonviolent criminal behaviors follows different trajectories. The authors rely on semiparametric mixture models to examine these comorbidities of offending in a longitudinal sample of delinquent adolescents. The results suggest that the trajectories of violent and nonviolent criminal offending follow similar paths over time and that membership in the chronic violent and nonviolent offender groups are associated with overlapping sets of risk factors. However, the results also indicate that at the individual level, membership in a particular nonviolent offending group does not share high concordance with membership in a particular violent offender group. These findings raise questions about the adequacy of general theories of crime progression and suggest the need to continue investigating behavioral theories that discriminate between different forms of offending.   [More]  Descriptors: Delinquency, Criminals, At Risk Persons, Violence

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