Bibliography: African Americans (page 1207 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include John Baugh, Amy Aldous Bergerson, Christopher T. Allen, Richard J. Petts, Robert W. Hensarling, Anthony B. Fong, LaMar Rashad Gibson, Antonia Seligowski, Chitra Raghavan, and Jay Gillen.

Berliner, BethAnn; Barrat, Vanessa X.; Fong, Anthony B.; Shirk, Paul B. (2009). What Happens to Dropouts Who Reenroll?, Online Yearbook of Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research. This study follows a cohort of first-time ninth graders over five years in San Bernardino City Unified School District (SBCUSD) to describe the magnitude of its dropout problem and the numbers, characteristics, and graduation outcomes of the dropouts who subsequently reenrolled in the district. Additionally, it documents reenrollment issues expressed by district staff and reenrollees. In 2001/02, there were 3,856 first-time ninth grade students enrolled in SBCUSD high schools. By 2005/06, 45.0 percent earned regular high school diplomas, and 35.1 percent dropped out at least once during the five years. Notably, dropping out is not necessarily a permanent outcome, and among the dropouts, 31.0 percent eventually reenrolled in district high schools. The enrollment data show that the majority of reenrollees dropped out in their first year of high school, and that nearly half returned to school for only one year. It also shows variation in student characteristics with ninth grade, Black, non English Language Learners, and female dropouts reenrolling at higher rates than others. The evidence also indicates that while reenrollees fared better academically before dropping out than permanent dropouts, most, upon reenrollment, did not earn enough credits to graduate. Nevertheless, 18.4 percent of reenrollees earned a district high school diploma by 2005/06. The study also documents what district staff and reenrollees say about policies and practices to improve graduation outcomes for dropouts who return to school. By focusing on reenrollees, this study contributes to shaping policy responses to address the broader dropout challenge.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: High Schools, Dropouts, Second Language Learning, Credits

Behrent, Megan (2009). Reclaiming Our Freedom to Teach: Education Reform in the Obama Era, Harvard Educational Review. High school teacher Megan Behrent reflects on the impact of Obama's election on the students in her high school classroom. Obliged to temper her students' joyful exuberance on the morning of November 5, 2008, Behrent found that the election fervor highlighted for her the ways that schooling under NCLB has constrained both educators and students, taking away teachers' freedom to teach and students' freedom to learn. In this essay, she examines the many ways in which the high-stakes testing industry punishes public school students and teachers, continually disenfranchising those who struggle to learn without adequate resources. While Obama's election may bring hope to learners of all ages, Behrent advises skepticism toward the changes education secretary Arne Duncan might bring, and she calls on teachers, families, and unions to collaborate in demanding the freedom to nurture true learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Secondary School Teachers, Teacher Student Relationship, Presidents, African Americans

Bergerson, Amy Aldous, Ed. (2009). Special Issue: College Choice and Access to College: Moving Policy, Research, and Practice to the 21st Century, ASHE Higher Education Report. College choice has been a topic of investigation for many years. Since the 1990 publication of Michael Paulsen's ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report on student enrollment behaviors, hundreds of publications have explored the processes through which students determine whether and where to go to college and the factors that influence these processes. This monograph reviews twenty years of literature on college choice, building on Paulsen's work and illuminating new directions the research has taken since 1990. Of particular note is the growing emphasis on the fact that students of color and students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds attend college at lower rates than white middle- and upper-class students. This focus on the stratification of higher education in the United States is perhaps the most notable aspect of the research reviewed in this monograph. Further, the pre-dominance of quantitative methods for examining issues of college choice is evident in the research of the last twenty years. Although this focus has allowed for greater specification of variables that contribute to the choice process, there is a clear need for additional qualitative work to further illuminate how and why those variables affect students' postsecondary decisions. Understanding college choice has potential implications for practice, policy, and research. Increasing competition for students among higher education institutions necessitates an understanding of the processes they use not only to make institutional selections but also to decide whether to attend college at all. With cuts in institutional budgets as a result of the current economic recession, the need to target marketing and recruitment efforts is growing. Increasing diversity in higher education necessitates developing the ability to better serve a wider variety of students. Finally, in an era where many have declared that the United States has "moved beyond race," it is necessary to understand and resolve the persistent lack of representation of students of color and lower socioeconomic students in higher education. This monograph examines college choice literature from the last two decades, identifying trends and patterns in the literature as well as in students' college choice processes. The monograph is organized in six sections: (1) research trends since the publication of Paulsen's (1990) monograph; (2) comprehensive models of college choice, emphasizing Hossler and Gallagher's three-stage model (1987) and introducing lenses through which the process is viewed; (3) studies exploring the role of socioeconomic status in the college choice process; (4) research examining the barriers and challenges to enrolling in higher education for students of color; (5) literature related to college preparation programs designed to increase the participation of underserved students in higher education; and (6) the implications and recommendations that follow a review of this research. Throughout, the monograph pays attention to enhancing the college choice processes of specific student populations.   [More]  Descriptors: College Preparation, College Choice, Access to Education, Literature Reviews

Mandara, Jelani; Varner, Fatima; Greene, Nereira; Richman, Scott (2009). Intergenerational Family Predictors of the Black-White Achievement Gap, Journal of Educational Psychology. The authors examined intergenerational family predictors of the Black-White achievement gap among 4,406 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. An intergenerational model of the process by which family factors contribute to the achievement gap was also tested. The results showed that the ethnic gaps in socioeconomic status (SES) and achievement had significantly reduced over the past few generations. Moreover, measures of grandparent SES, mothers' achievement, parent SES, and a comprehensive set of reliable parenting practices explained all of the ethnic differences in achievement scores. Parenting practices such as creating a school-oriented home environment, allowing adolescents to make decisions, and not burdening them with too many chores had particularly important effects on the achievement gap. The authors conclude that adjusting for these differences would eliminate the ethnic achievement gap.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Parenting Styles, Child Rearing, Adolescents

Reed, Douglas S. (2009). Is There an Expectations Gap? Educational Federalism and the Demographic Distribution of Proficiency Cut Scores, American Educational Research Journal. Recent analyses of state-level proficiency standards under No Child Left Behind indicate that states' benchmarks for determining whether a child is proficient in reading and math are widely divergent. This article explores whether the capacity of states to employ different proficiency standards imposes different performance standards across demographic groups. Using a newly devised metric that allows for interstate comparison of state-level proficiency cut scores, along with aggregated district-level demographic data, this article provides a descriptive analysis of the distribution of proficiency standards across demographic groups to determine whether some groups systematically face higher or lower proficiency cut scores. The findings indicate that while an "expectations gap" does exist, it does not operate consistently across categories of race, ethnicity, and poverty status. The article concludes by reviewing the trade-offs required under three possible policy responses to these findings.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, State Standards, Cutting Scores, Benchmarking

Allen, Christopher T.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Raghavan, Chitra (2009). Gender Symmetry, Sexism, and Intimate Partner Violence, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, Interpersonal Relationship, Path Analysis, Gender Bias

McGlynn, Angela Provitera (2009). Proven Pathways to Success for Minority Students, Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review. What if this nation could solve the college graduation gap between whites and many minority and low-income students? Not only would this positively affect the lives of low-income students, minority students, and those first in their families to go to college, it would better prepare everyone to meet the economic and global challenges that threaten America's future. A new Education Sector report, "Graduation Rate Watch: Making Minority Student Success a Priority," claims that not only is it possible to bridge that gap, it is already being done at some institutions. Florida State University's (FSU) success in this regard can be attributed to a systematic, well-planned approach that has many components. Named CARE, an acronym for the Center for Academic Retention and Enhancement, the program was initiated in 2000. In 2001, FSU's graduation rate gap was minus 3%. Already better than average, but by 2006, FSU had eliminated the gap and was graduating black students at a historic rate. This article presents the highlights of the CARE program.   [More]  Descriptors: Low Income Groups, Graduation Rate, Graduation, Minority Group Children

Petts, Richard J. (2009). Family and Religious Characteristics' Influence on Delinquency Trajectories from Adolescence to Young Adulthood, American Sociological Review. This study takes a life-course approach to examine whether family and religious characteristics influence individual-level delinquency trajectories from early adolescence through young adulthood. Based on data from the NLSY79, results suggest that residing with two parents deters youths from becoming delinquent and that supportive parenting practices reduce their likelihood of becoming involved in delinquent behavior early in adolescence. There is also evidence that family and religion interact to predict delinquency trajectories. Religion enhances the effect of parental affection in deterring delinquent behavior and mitigates the increased risk of high levels of delinquent behavior among youths in single-parent families. Moreover, the findings indicate that delinquency trajectories are not immutable; family transitions are associated with increases in delinquency, but religious participation throughout adolescence and marriage are associated with declines in delinquent behavior. Overall, results suggest that family and religious characteristics continually influence the extent to which youths commit delinquent acts.   [More]  Descriptors: Delinquency, Religion, Parenting Styles, Early Adolescents

Payne, Yasser Arafat; Starks, Brian Chad; Gibson, LaMar Rashad (2009). Contextualizing Black Boys' Use of a Street Identity in High School, New Directions for Youth Development. This participatory action research project worked with four street-life-oriented black men to document how a community sample of street-life-oriented black adolescents between the ages of sixteen and nineteen frame street life as a site of resiliency inside schools based on 156 surveys, 10 individual interviews, and 1 group interview. Data collection took place primarily in Paterson, New Jersey, and Harlem, New York City. Findings reveal that the adolescents overall hold negative attitudes about their educational experiences within two dominant themes: student-teacher interactions and preparation for economic and educational opportunities. Results can be used to understand how the adolescents' street identities are adaptive inside schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Action Research, Negative Attitudes, Adolescents, Educational Experience

Baugh, John (2009). Linguistic Diversity, Access, and Risk, Review of Research in Education. Children of the poor are at greater educational risk than the children of the wealthy, but to what extent, if any, are these risks the result of undetected linguistic considerations? This chapter reviews long-standing issues that influence students' academic and social experiences in school as well as more contemporary debates that respond to (mis)understandings of linguistic styles of Black people and larger issues of race. The author begins with an overview of the limitations of legislation intended to increase educational access for students in the United States to attend to the range of linguistic histories and varieties represented in the U.S. student population. Next, the author argues against racial classification as a defining feature, followed by an extended discussion of racial classification and labeling in the United States and South Africa.   [More]  Descriptors: Race, Classification, Foreign Countries, Access to Education

Seligowski, Antonia; West, Doe (2009). Aggression in Dating Relationships Compared by Country of Origin, College Student Journal. Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyze prevalence levels of aggression in dating relationships and to compare this by country of origin. The study also seeks more understanding of the violence experienced by men in these countries. Method: A convenience sample was used; study participants were 194 females and 168 males ranging in age from 18 to 72. The measure analyzed was the Conflict Tactics Scale-Partner. Results of this scale were compared by country of origin. These included the U.S. and those in East Asia and Eastern Europe. Prevalence levels of aggression were also compared by gender. Results: Participants born in Eastern Europe reported more violence than those in the U.S. and East Asia. Males born in the U.S. reported being the recipients of physical violence significantly more than women in the U.S. Also, females born in East Asia reported significantly more perpetrating of violence than males. In Eastern European countries of origin, females reported significantly more usage of negotiation in romantic relationships than males. Conclusion: Although some significant differences were found within countries, the differences are not enough to assert that any of the countries of origin experience more overall dating violence than the others.   [More]  Descriptors: Violence, Females, Incidence, Dating (Social)

McLaughlin, Jennifer; Kelly, Kim (2009). A Dialogue: Our Selves, Our Students, and Obama, Harvard Educational Review. The following essay is a dialogue between two high school English teachers at a small, progressive public school on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Throughout their dialogue, Jen, whose voice appears in italics, and Kim, whose voice appears in plain text, discuss the factors that motivated their decisions to become teachers, tell of the distinct impact that Obama's election has had on their practice and their students, and suggest that many students feel ambivalent about the extent to which President Obama could effect real change in their lives. The article concludes with an anecdote, suggesting that educators can engage in a process of inquiry with students to help them make connections between Obama's election and their lives.   [More]  Descriptors: English Teachers, Secondary School Teachers, Interpersonal Communication, Political Attitudes

Gillen, Jay (2009). An Insurrectionary Generation: Young People, Poverty, Education, and Obama, Harvard Educational Review. The Baltimore Algebra Project is a student-run, student-staffed nonprofit that employs public high schoolers and recent graduates as math study group leaders and as organized advocates for quality education as a constitutional right. In this essay Jay Gillen draws on his experiences as a facilitator of the Algebra Project to argue that only a generation of young people–and particularly young people in poverty–has the potential and the necessary boldness to break the caste system of schooling. In this struggle, they follow their ancestors who "earned" the insurrections required to break the slave and sharecropper systems. How young people in poverty interpret Obama's election, asserts Gillen, will determine what Obama means for educational justice.   [More]  Descriptors: Age Groups, Adolescents, Poverty, Presidents

Celinska, Dorota K. (2009). Narrative Voices of Early Adolescents: Influences of Learning Disability and Cultural Background, International Journal of Special Education. This study analyzed personal and fictional narratives of culturally/ethnically diverse students with and without learning disabilities. The participants were 82 fourth to seventh graders from urban and suburban schools located in a Midwest metropolitan area. Narratives were elicited in the context of naturalistic conversation and analyzed using High Point Analysis and Episodic Analysis. The significant effects of student ethnic/cultural background, learning disability and the interaction of the two factors were found on several narrative facets in both personal and fictional genres. The findings are interpreted beyond the traditional deficit-based approach, pointing out to possible influences of student ethnic/cultural background. Educational implications for assessment and narrative-based instruction for diverse narrators are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Suburban Schools, Learning Disabilities, Metropolitan Areas, African American Students

Sands, Charles D.; Hensarling, Robert W.; Angel, James B. (2009). Comparison of Health-Related Measures of Two Groups of Adolescents in a Rural Southeastern County in the United States, Health Education Journal. Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish baseline values on physiological parameters for 7-11 graders (n = 146) in a rural area of Alabama and to examine whether differences existed among the adolescents in the county. Design: Descriptive. Setting: Many adolescents in the southern portion of the United States suffer disproportionately from diseases clearly linked to lifestyle choices (i.e. diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, etc.). Method: Health assessments were measured during physical education classes at two independent high schools. The measures taken included: blood pressure, recovery heart rate, upper and lower body flexibility, percentage of body fat, BMI-for-age, height, weight, and muscular strength and endurance. Results: Results indicated significant differences between two school populations for cardiovascular fitness, hamstring flexibility, and shoulder flexibility. In addition, there were significant differences between genders with respect to recovery heart rate, systolic blood pressure, height, weight, and percentage of body fat. Conclusion: Thus, this research shows differences between similar populations in the same county and these differences must be explored further.   [More]  Descriptors: Metabolism, Physical Education, Muscular Strength, Heart Disorders

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