Bibliography: African Americans (page 1206 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Sylvain Bernier, Alliance for Excellent Education, Eric L. Holland, Lamara D. Warren, Noel S. Anderson, Aaron Sojourner, Purity Kanini Githembe, Elizabeth E. Blair, Amanda Louise Sullivan, and Colleen L. Larson.

Sojourner, Aaron (2009). Inference on Peer Effects with Missing Peer Data: Evidence from Project STAR, Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness. This paper contributes empirically to the literature on peer effects in first-grade classrooms. The paper examines peer effects on academic achievement among first graders randomly assigned to their classrooms and to their teachers as part of Tennessee's Project STAR, America's largest ever education experiment. The analysis draws on previously unexploited measures of kindergarten achievement taken before random assignment to first-grade classes and available for about sixty percent of this sample. Data are not missing at random. This paper studies effects of peer lagged achievement on first-grade achievement. The STAR data allow for credible inference about peer effects because students and teachers were randomly assigned to classes within school. Further, the data contain pre-assignment measures of achievement, which are useful as conditioning variables to explain each student's own outcome and for characterizing each student's peer group. The paper contributes methodologically to the larger peer-effects literature in advancing the understanding of how to make inference about peer effects in the presence of missing data on peers.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Peer Groups, Classrooms, Peer Influence

Goldstein, Phyllis; Strom, Adam (2009). Choosing to Participate: Revised Edition, Facing History and Ourselves. "Choosing to Participate" focuses on civic choices–the decisions people make about themselves and others in their community, nation, and world. The choices people make, both large and small, may not seem important at the time, but little by little they shape them as individuals and responsible global citizens. "Choosing to Participate" grew out of the authors' early experience in Facing History and Ourselves classrooms when, after learning about the failure of democracy and the steps that led to the Holocaust, students asked, "How can I make a positive difference in the world?" The stories in this book will engage young people as they begin to understand that the choices they make as members of a civic society matter to themselves, their communities, and to future generations. Individual readings contain footnotes.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Democracy, Racial Segregation, Racial Discrimination

Warren, Lamara D. (2009). Ain't I a Leader: Exploring the Leadership Narratives of Black Female Undergraduate Student Leaders at a Predominantly White Institution, ProQuest LLC. Traditionally, research on student leadership development has been exclusive and focused primarily on the experiences of White, male undergraduate student leaders. Therefore, there is little knowledge about the leadership development of Black female undergraduate students. This exploratory study attempts to fills a gap in the student leadership development literature by examining and understanding the various sources of support and influence associated with the leadership experiences of Black female undergraduate students at predominantly White institutions.   This study employed a combination of critical qualitative research and phenomenological methods in order to answer the guiding research question: What are the various sources of support and influence associated with the leadership experiences of Black female undergraduate students? Three in-depth semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conduced with ten Black female undergraduate students attending a large, public, predominantly White, research institution located in the Midwest.   From the data analysis, three major themes emerged: (1) sources of influence and support, (2) self-perceptions, and (3) rationale for being a leader as well as two paradoxical themes: (1) the perception of the lack of issues of race and gender and (2) inability to identify leadership obstacles faced by Black female undergraduate student leaders at a predominantly White institution.   The findings from this study provide insight for understanding the leadership development and support mechanisms of Black female undergraduate student leaders at predominantly White institutions. Most importantly, the findings from this study are useful for assisting higher education stakeholders in improving practices and policies related to student leadership development as well as expand the research on Black female undergraduate student leaders.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:…   [More]  Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Qualitative Research, Focus Groups, Interviews

Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed. (2009). Education and War, Harvard Education Press. This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people swept up in wars "reconsider and reshape education to reflect or resist the commitments, ideals, structures, and effects of wartime. Constituents use educational institutions to disseminate and reproduce dominant ideologies or to empower and inspire those marginalized." A wide-ranging volume that addresses issues of vital importance within the United States and throughout the world, "Education and War" fills a crucial void in individuals' understanding of education and its critical role in society. This book contains two parts. Part One, Reforms of Education Amidst Conflict, contains: (1) Jesuit Education for Justice: The Colegio in El Salvador, 1968-1984 (Charles J. Beirne); (2) Resistances to Knowing in the Nuclear Age (John E. Mack); (3) The Contradictions of Bantu Education (Mokubung O. Nkomo); (4) Identifying Alternatives to Political Violence: An Educational Imperative (Christopher Kruegler and Patricia Parkman); (5) Developing Cultural Fluency: Arab and Jewish Students Engaging in One Another's Company (Jocelyn Anne Glazier); (6) Black Dean: Race, Reconciliation, and the Emotions of Deanship (Jonathan David Jansen); and (7) "I Was Born Here, but My Home, It's Not Here": Educating for Democratic Citizenship in an Era of Transnational Migration and Global Conflict (Thea Renda Abu El-Haj). Part Two, New Forms of Education Amidst Conflict, contains: (1) The Flying University in Poland, 1978-1980 (Hanna Buczynska-Garewicz); (2) "Not Bread Alone": Clandestine Schooling and Resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto during the Holocaust (Susan M. Kardos); (3) An Interview with Khalil Mahshi; (4) Forming the National Character: Paradox in the Educational Thought of the Revolutionary Generation (David Tyack); (5) Women and Education in Eritrea: A Historical and Contemporary Analysis (Asgedet Stefanos); and (6) Nicaragua 1980: The Battle of the ABCs (Fernando Cardenal and Valerie Miller).   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, War, Institutional Role, Role of Education

Caldas, Stephen J.; Bernier, Sylvain; Marceau, Richard (2009). Explanatory Factors of the Black Achievement Gap in Montreal's Public and Private Schools: A Multivariate Analysis, Education and Urban Society. This exploratory analysis uses multiple regression modeling to help shed light on the correlates of the Black achievement gap in Montreal's public and private secondary schools. Using school-level testing data from Quebec's Ministry of Education, the authors show that there is a Black achievement gap, and that this gap is highly associated with school socio-economic status, peer family structure, and average age of the student body's parents. An important secondary finding is that there remains a significant positive association of private schooling on academic achievement, even after controlling for race and all other central independent variables.   [More]  Descriptors: Private Schools, Age, African American Achievement, Academic Achievement

Anderson, Noel S.; Larson, Colleen L. (2009). Sinking, like Quicksand: Expanding Educational Opportunity for Young Men of Color, Educational Administration Quarterly. Purpose: The purpose of this interpretive case study is to examine the assumptions underpinning one Upward Bound program to understand how the program attempts to increase educational opportunity for poor urban youth and how this approach plays out in the lived experiences of three young men who participate in the program. Research Design: This study of an Upward Bound program was conducted at a large urban university in the Northeast. Based on the methodological framework of interpretive interactionism by Norman Denzin (1989), this interpretive case study was conducted over an entire academic year. Formal and informal interviews, observations, and document analysis were used to gather data to understand the phenomena being studied in-depth. The conceptual lenses of Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum frame the analysis of this study, revealing the logic and limits of focusing on achievement alone to increase educational opportunity for impoverished youth. Findings: The director of "College Access Initiative" believes that this program can increase educational equity and opportunity for impoverished youth by: a) emphasizing an ethic of rugged individualism, b) insisting that the young men focus on the future, and c) immersing students in an intense academic and test preparation program. The findings of this study reveal that this academic approach to expanding educational opportunity for the young men was not sufficient for increasing their freedom to focus on academic achievement or to stay in the program. Conclusions: These findings suggest an urgent need for coordinating academic support programs with other social, economic, and human service agencies serving poor communities if we are to enhance real opportunities to achieve for impoverished youth.   [More]  Descriptors: Males, African Americans, American Indians, Asians

Sullivan, Amanda Louise (2009). Patterns and Predictors of English Language Learner Representation in Special Education, ProQuest LLC. The disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education has been a persistent problem in education for more than four decades. The core issue concerns the possibility that some students may be misidentified, thereby receiving inappropriate educational services and being unnecessarily placed at-risk for the negative outcomes associated with disability labels, while others may fail to be identified for much needed services. The literature on disproportionality has been dominated by analyses of identification patterns for students identified as racial/ethnic minorities, particularly those who are Black and Native American, and, to a lesser extent, Latino/a, at both the national, state, and local levels. There has been considerably less attention to the continued disproportionate representation of linguistic minority students among those identified as disabled. Moreover, while there have been several studies investigating the predictors of disproportionality, few have included students identified as English language learners (ELLs). This study addresses these gaps in the literature by examining the extent and context of ELL disproportionality in special education in a state with a large population of students identified as ELLs. Utilizing local education agency (LEA) data obtained from the Arizona Department of Education, this study examines identification and placement patterns for the 1998-1999 to 2005-2006 academic years in order to understand the extent of disproportionality in special education and the high-incidence disability categories and in each of the educational environments in which students with disabilities are served. Additionally, the study examines how certain characteristics of LEAs predict these patterns. Results show that students identified as ELLs are overrepresented in special education overall and in the high-incidence categories of specific learning disability, mild mental retardation, and speech language impairment at the state-level and in many LEAs These students are more likely than students identified as White to be served in the least restrictive environments, and are increasingly less likely to be removed for the majority of the school day. Predictors of disproportionality varied by identification and placement categories. The implications for research and practice are addressed.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:…   [More]  Descriptors: Incidence, Mild Mental Retardation, Identification, Special Education

Githembe, Purity Kanini (2009). African Refugee Parents' Involvement in Their Children's Schools: Barriers and Recommendations for Improvement, ProQuest LLC. The purpose of this study was to examine involvement of African refugee parents in the education of their elementary school children. The setting of the study was Northern and Southern Texas. African refugee parents and their children's teachers completed written surveys and also participated in interviews. In the study's mixed-method design, quantitative measures provided data about parent involvement at home, parent involvement at school, frequency of parent-teacher contact, quality of parent-teacher relationship, parent endorsement of children's schools, and barriers to parent involvement. Qualitative data from the open-ended questions provided data on barriers and strategies to improve involvement.   Sixty-one African refugee parents responded to the survey and also participated in an in-depth face-to-face or telephone interview. Twenty teacher participants responded to an online survey. Quantitative data gathered from the parent and teacher surveys were analyzed using frequency distributions and analyses of variance. Qualitative data were analyzed by summarizing and sorting information into different categories using Weft QDA, an open-source qualitative analysis software. From these data, I identified barriers to African refugee parent involvement in their children's schools, as well as challenges that teachers face as they try to involve African refugee parents.   Results of analyses of variance revealed statistically significant differences in parent involvement between African refugee parents with limited English proficiency and those with high English proficiency. A key finding of the research was that, whereas the overall level of parent involvement for African refugee parents was low, a major barrier to involvement was language. Teachers and parents cited enrolment in English as a second language programs as the best strategy to enhance parent involvement of African refugees. Additionally, parents who reported higher education levels were more involved in their children's education both at home and at school. All groups of African refugee parents reported high endorsement of their children's school. Strategies suggested to improve involvement include the use of interpreters and parent education on importance of involvement.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:…   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Parent Participation, Teacher Surveys, Parent School Relationship

Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ3) (2009). Degrees Conferred by Connecticut Institutions of Higher Education Highlights, 2008-09. Report. This report presents the degrees conferred by Connecticut institutions of higher education in 2008-09. Connecticut colleges and universities awarded 38,047 degrees in 2008-09, up 3.9 percent from 2007-08, the state's eighth consecutive year of growth and a 28 percent increase since 1999. This is the largest annual gain in 20 years with the exception of a 6.6 percent surge in 2003. That spike marked the first sign, in degrees attained, of the growth in high school graduates entering as first-time college freshmen that began in the late 1990's. The 28 percent increase over the last decade reflects this growth. More than half (51%) of all awards were bachelor's degrees, followed by master's at 27 percent and associate's at 15 percent. There was a 10 percent increase in associate's degrees in 2009, the largest increase in 20 years. Graduates with associate's degrees make up 15 percent of all degree recipients, the highest portion since 2002. The largest increases in associate's degrees were at six of Connecticut's community colleges–Capital, Gateway, Housatonic, Manchester, Norwalk and Tunxis. The most popular fields of study at the associate's level are General Studies, Health Professions, and Business. The number of minority students earning degrees increased 8.4 percent following two years of tepid growth. Minority students now make up 18.4 percent of all graduates compared to 16.7 percent five years ago and 21.4 percent of the state's general population. Degrees earned by Black students rose 7.3 percent after two years of decline and increased 9 percent at both the associate's and bachelor's levels. Degrees earned by Hispanic students were up 12.5 percent for the second year of significant growth with awards up at all degree levels. Men earned 41.3 percent of all degrees, up for the third consecutive year and narrowing the gender gap. The peak of the gender gap occurred in 2006 when women exceeded 60 percent of all degrees granted. Women account for 58.7 percent of all graduates, the same share as 2002, and continue to earn the majority of degrees at every level. The growth in degrees for men occurred at the associate's and bachelor's levels. Among Black and Hispanic men, bachelor's degrees have risen steadily over the last five years. [For the 2007-08 report, see ED528078.]   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, College Freshmen, Health Occupations, Females

Maryland State Department of Education (2009). Maryland's Public Charter School Program: Providing High Quality Choices in Public Education. Charter School Annual Report, 2008. The Maryland General Assembly enacted Maryland's charter school law in 2003. This current school year (2008-2009) marks the sixth year of Maryland's public charter school program. This paper presents the statistics representing the performance of Maryland's public charter schools for the school year 2008-2009.   [More]  Descriptors: Charter Schools, School Law, Public Education, Educational Quality

Sims, David P. (2009). "Going down with the Ship?" The Effect of School Accountability on the Distribution of Teacher Experience in California. Conference Paper, National Center on Performance Incentives. Many school accountability programs, including the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act are built on the premise that the threat of sanctions attached to failure will produce higher student achievement. However, the stigma associated with failing schools and the expected costs of possible future sanctions may lead experienced teachers to leave these schools for other opportunities. This may undermine the program's improvement efforts. Particularly it may lead failing schools to rely on a higher proportion of novice teachers. This study looks at elementary and secondary schools in California from 2002-2006 to determine the effect of failing to meet academic performance thresholds on teacher experience under the NCLB accountability system. Because failing schools differ in important ways from schools that meet performance targets, the author takes advantage of the racial subgroup rules to compare groups of schools that may have different failure probabilities despite similar profiles. The author finds that failure to meet AYP is associated with decreases in aggregate teacher experience and increases in the proportion of novice teachers.   [More]  Descriptors: Experienced Teachers, Accountability, Teaching Experience, Secondary Schools

Alliance for Excellent Education (2009). Understanding High School Graduation Rates in Delaware. Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the skills to succeed in college and the workplace are essential. Yet nationally, one-third of students–about 1.3 million each year–leave high school without a diploma, at a high cost to themselves and society at large. Unacceptably low graduation rates, particularly among poor and minority students, have been obscured for far too long by inaccurate data, calculations, and reporting, and inadequate accountability systems at the state and federal levels. This one-page report provides Delaware's latest graduation rate statistics, demonstrates its graduation gaps between demographic groups, illustrates its discrepancies in graduation rates reported by government and independent sources, and examines its economic costs of dropouts to individuals and society. [This report is a companion to "Understanding High School Graduation Rates in the United States." For the main report, see ED506961.]   [More]  Descriptors: High School Graduates, Graduation Rate, Dropouts, Academic Achievement

Maryland State Department of Education (2009). Maryland School Assessment Results Continue to Improve. The Maryland School Assessment (MSA) is administered annually to students in grades 3-8 in reading and math. MSA data are used to meet federal No Child Let Behind (NCLB) requirements. This paper presents how Maryland students' reading and mathematics MSA scores continued to improve in 2009, and the achievement gaps among special services and racial subgroups continued to close. This progress can be directly attributed to the steadfast effort put forth by educators throughout the State; in particular, an unwavering focus on improving instruction so students are prepared for the world that awaits them.   [More]  Descriptors: State Standards, Reading Achievement, Mathematics Achievement, Scores

Utah State Office of Education (2009). Third Grade Reading. This paper presents results of English Language Arts Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) of third grade students for the year 2008-2009. In 2005, 77% of third-grade students who took the 3rd grade Language Arts CRT were proficient; in 2009, 80% of third-grade students were proficient. Third grade proficiency on the Language Arts Test has gradually increased for all subgroups. The Hispanic and Pacific Islander subgroups show the greatest increases. Due to subgroups whose proficiency is typically lower than average but whose population grew faster than average, state numbers remained relatively stable even though individual subgroups improved. In a related matter, the Iowa Test of Basic Skills: Reading Subtest for the fall and spring achievement showed some improvements. Overall, third graders improved by five percent in 2008 from fall to spring and by four percent in 2009 from fall to spring and almost every subgroup improves from the fall to the spring. In 2009, American Indian students showed the most improvement (six percent).   [More]  Descriptors: English Instruction, Reading Instruction, Criterion Referenced Tests, Language Arts

Holland, Eric L. (2009). Hire or Not to Hire: A Study of Highly Qualified Teachers, ProQuest LLC. The purpose of this study was to find out how and to what extent alternatively certified teachers, who are considered highly qualified, impact the achievement gap that exists between Black and White students that is measured by the End Of Course Test (EOCT). Two public school districts, one rural and one suburban, were selected from 150 school districts in the state of Georgia. A quantitative research approach was used to answer the research questions. Archived data was collected on eleventh grade students in two Rural South Georgia schools by using the school's EOCT results. A questionnaire was conducted to gather information about the participants' perception and attitude of each highly qualified program. The results of this study indicated that student performance does not depend on teacher certification type given that no strong empirical evidence was found showing that students taught by traditionally certified teachers are at a significant advantage academically or vice versa, based on the EOCT archival data. The survey results supported this conclusion as well, given that the teachers were not likely to show a bias towards one group of teachers versus another. Therefore, both sources of data supported the conclusion that traditionally certified teachers and alternatively certified teachers are equal in terms of their ability to close the achievement gap between Black and White high school students. Recommendations for practice and further research were offered.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:…   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Gap, School Districts, Statistical Analysis, Alternative Teacher Certification

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