Bibliography: African Americans (page 1205 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Gwendolyn Michele Thompson McMillon, Allison Kabel, Jarrod M. Stanley, Antonio A. Morgan-Lopez, Mary Anne Brocato, Carol D. Lee, Lori Carter-Edwards, Celia Thurston, Elizabeth Stearns, and Elisabeth M. Jerome.

McDowell, Mary Collier (2009). Collective Teacher Efficacy and Minority Enrollment in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Classes, ProQuest LLC. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which Collective Teacher Efficacy explained the variance in Black and Hispanic enrollment in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate classes. In order to achieve this purpose, survey research methodology was employed with Virginia high schools as the unit of study.   Fifty-three schools were selected based on participation in, and open enrollment practices for, Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Classes. A 10% random sample of teachers within the core teaching areas at each of the schools was invited to participate. Each teacher received a packet containing Goddard's Collective Teacher Efficacy Survey (2002) and a pre-addressed and stamped envelope for survey return. Demographic data regarding percentage of Black and Hispanic enrollment participation, socioeconomic status (SES), limited English participation (LEP) rates, and school size was collected from individual schools, websites, and division offices. Survey and demographic data were received from 40 of the 53 schools (75% response rate).   Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that Collective Teacher Efficacy (CTE) did not explain statistically significant variance (p greater than 0.05) in Black and Hispanic enrollment. However, there may be some practical significance in that one of the CTE constructs (Group Competency) explained 4.8% of the variance in Black enrollment (p less than 0.077). The control variables of SES, LEP participation and school size combined to explain 43.8% of the variance in Black enrollment and 85.5% of the variance in Hispanic enrollment.   The lack of validity and reliability of the methodology might explain the lack of statistical significance. The small sample size of schools and the large number of variables included in the regression analysis limited the external validity of the findings. Potential outliers in the schools with low response rates limited the reliability. According to the test developers, a reliable sample consisted of a minimum of five returned surveys. Thirty-five percent of the schools in the study had less than 5 teacher responses. The fact that a CTE construct explained 4.8% of Black enrollment suggests that Black enrollment may in fact be impacted at least to some degree by levels of collective teacher efficacy.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Advanced Placement, Research Methodology, School Size

Stearns, Elizabeth; Buchmann, Claudia; Bonneau, Kara (2009). Interracial Friendships in the Transition to College: Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together Once They Leave the Nest?, Sociology of Education. Because of segregation in neighborhoods and schools, college may provide the first opportunity for many young adults to interact closely with members of different racial and ethnic groups. Little research has examined how interracial friendships form during this period. This article investigates changes in the racial composition of friendship networks in the transition from high school to college and how aspects of the college environment are related to such changes. Interracial friendships increase for whites, decrease for blacks, and show little change for Latinos and Asians. The habits of friendship formation that are acquired during adolescence and features of residential and extracurricular college contexts influence the formation of interracial friendships. The race of one's roommate, the degree of interracial contact in residence halls, and participation in various types of extracurricular activities are most strongly related to the formation of interracial friendships.   [More]  Descriptors: Neighborhoods, Extracurricular Activities, Racial Segregation, Racial Composition

Friend, Jennifer; Caruthers, Loyce; McCarther, Shirley Marie (2009). Re-Living Dangerous Memories: Online Journaling to Interrogate Spaces of "Otherness" in an Educational Administration Program at a Midwestern University, Journal of Research on Leadership Education. This theoretical paper explores the use of online journaling in an educational administration program to interrogate spaces of "otherness"–the geographical spaces of cities where poor children and children of color live–and the dangerous memories prospective administrators may have about diversity. The cultures of most educational administration programs do not help graduate students "dig beneath the surface" of the seemingly benign recipes of current school reform to explore cultural differences. When given the opportunity to use reflective online journaling, candidates talked more freely about race, ethnicity, class, language, ability/disability, gender, sexual orientation, and other facets of diversity. Reculturing educational administration programs will require both students and instructors to have similar opportunities to interrogate spaces of "otherness" and work to transform them.   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Education, Graduate Students, Educational Administration, Sexual Orientation

Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan (2009). Relevant: Beyond the Basics, Teaching Tolerance. Many teachers have a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and a desire to see it succeed in their classrooms. The problem is that in many cases, teachers have "only" a cursory understanding, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. "Culturally relevant pedagogy" is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet even when people do not know the term, they tend to appreciate culturally relevant pedagogy when they see it. In this article, the author discusses some myths and misperceptions about culturally relevant pedagogy that often result in awkward classroom moments, ineffective instructional practices and counterproductive teacher-student and teacher-parent relationships. She provides an example to show how culturally relevant pedagogy works, and why it works for all students. She believes that many diverse students fail in schools not because their teachers don't know their content, but because their teachers haven't made the connections between the content and their students' existing mental schemes, prior knowledge and cultural perspectives. In helping learners make sense of new concepts and ideas, culturally relevant teachers create learning opportunities in which students' voices emerge and knowledge and meaning are constructed from the students' perspectives.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Culturally Relevant Education, Teaching Methods, Cultural Pluralism

Whiting, Gilman (2009). Gifted Black Males: Understanding and Decreasing Barriers to Achievement and Identity, Roeper Review. Black males as a group experience disproportionate amounts of school failure. Compared to Black females and White males, for example, Black males have the highest dropout rates, poorest achievement, and lowest test scores. Further, they are sorely under-represented in gifted education and over-represented in special education. Of those Black males who do succeed in school settings, certain characteristics seem to be evident. In this article, I share these characteristics in what I am calling a "scholar identity" model. First, however, I discuss achievement barriers that many gifted Black males seem to face. The article ends with some recommendations for educators as they work to improve the educational status of Black males identified as gifted.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Gifted, Dropout Rate, Males

McMillon, Gwendolyn Michele Thompson (2009). Pen Pals without Borders: A Cultural Exchange of Teaching and Learning, Education and Urban Society. When teachers and students are from different cultures, dissonance can occur in classrooms, which can be debilitating for effective literacy teaching and learning. Researchers have conducted studies in urban schools for many years, but the problem of cultural dissonance continues to plague many classrooms. It is imperative that teacher education programs develop creative, effective ways to prepare the teaching population to meet the needs of a diverse student population. This article reports the findings of a pen pal cultural exchange project between 40 predominantly White, female, preservice teachers in an elementary reading methods course, and 26 predominantly Black, fourth graders in an urban elementary school. The study analyzes 336 letters (154 children letters and 182 adult letters) to identity overarching themes. The content of the letters are analyzed using discourse analysis. The three most frequently found themes are shared experiences, overcoming adversities, and cultural practices and experiences. This study provides specific, practical methods for teacher educators to utilize in their courses and to help teachers and teacher candidates acquire important cultural knowledge and develop skills that prepare them to effectively teach the diverse student population in the United States. In particular, it provides a framework and specific ways to implement a pen pal cultural exchange project between preservice teachers and elementary students–students from two different worlds who became "border-crossers".   [More]  Descriptors: Preservice Teachers, Teacher Education Programs, Discourse Analysis, Grade 4

Richardson, Elaine (2009). My "Ill" Literacy Narrative: Growing up Black, Po and a Girl, in the Hood, Gender and Education. Hegemonic discourses authorise certain ways of being, knowing, and doing. We internalise or appropriate images, patterns, and words from the social activities in which we have participated. Race, gender, sexuality, age, education, class are among aspects of identity (social constructions) that affect our language and literacy acquisition, the way we make sense. Grounded in the field of New Literacy Studies and drawing on the tools of critical discourse studies, I analyse verbal and non-verbal excerpts from a street literature memoir, tentatively titled "PHD 2 Ph.D.: Po Ho on Dope 2 Ph.D, The Ill Narrative of Dr. E", to examine young Black women's negotiation of raced, classed, gendered and sexual ideologies. My aim is to show that these ideologies work to constrain the possibilities for Black womanhood by ascribing negative meanings and identities to Black women, which render them 'at-risk' for various sorts of disadvantage, that "at-risk" youth are not inherently so, and that educators and other youth workers should be aware of the ways that social literacies frame youth identity and sense making.   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Females, Ideology, Sexuality

Brocato, Mary Anne (2009). Computer-Aided Instruction in Mathematics Remediation at a Community College, ProQuest LLC. Over the past ten years, traditional lecture style delivery has given way to computer-aided instruction (CAI) in post-secondary education. Developmental mathematics courses have been one of the most widely used applications. At a small community college in the Mississippi Delta, a computer assisted version of Intermediate Algebra was implemented. There were two purposes of this research. First the research attempted to determine whether or not the new CAI course was effective. This was the basis for Research Question One. Second, the research attempted to determine students' characteristics that affected performance in the new delivery format. This purpose led to Research Question Two as to how demographics affected CAI mathematics performance. The second purpose also led to Research Question Three concerning how attitudinal and personal factors were related to performance in the CAI mathematics course.   Phase One of the research addressed Research Question One. In that study, 5636 student grades and withdrawal patterns were studies over a 13 semester period. The first seven semesters were taught by traditional lecture methods. The next six semesters were taught in a CAI laboratory. Significant increases in grades and significant increases in withdrawal rates were noted in the CAI phase. These two findings were probably related, in that withdrawing students tend to have a lower level of performance compared to students who completed the course.   Phase Two of the research studied both Research Question Two and Three. Research Question Two studied the performance of various demographic groups on the CAI format. Females earned significantly higher grades than did males and Whites earned significantly higher grades than did Blacks. Research Question Three studied attitudinal and personal variables as they affected performance in the mathematics CAI course. Mathematics self-efficacy was a significant predictor of grade in the course. Also, males gave significantly higher course evaluations than did females, even though females earned higher grades in the course. Mathematics Self-Efficacy was significantly higher in Whites, while Mathematics Avoidance was higher in Blacks.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Grades (Scholastic), Females, Self Efficacy, Computer Assisted Instruction

Jones, Elaine F.; Nelson-Le Gall, Sharon (2009). Black Children's Judgments of In-Group and Out-Group Students' Academic Achievement, Motivation, and Behavior, Negro Educational Review. Seventy-two first-, third-, and fifth-grade Black children heard stories about Black and White students engaged in computer, physical education, social studies, and spelling tasks at school. Children were asked to evaluate the ability, effort, experience of task difficulty, and likelihood of task success for the story characters. Findings indicated that the effect of character's race and sex on the children's evaluations varied across task domains and type of judgment being made. Children judged that females would need more effort than males would need to learn the social studies material. For the computer task, racial in-group favoritism was suggested by findings that Blacks would need less effort to learn the task than Whites. In-group favoritism based on the learner's sex was suggested by girls' attribution of more ability to females than to males for the computer task. Implications of these findings for the continued study of academic achievement stereotypes of Black students are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Children, Childhood Attitudes, Academic Achievement, Story Grammar

Lee, Carol D. (2009). Historical Evolution of Risk and Equity: Interdisciplinary Issues and Critiques, Review of Research in Education. In this chapter, the author offers a historical overview of constructions of risk in the context of schooling for nondominant groups and how communities have organized schooling in ways that support resiliency in the face of these risks. She discusses an expansive orientation to understanding how people learn to respond to risks that is rooted in a cultural and ecological perspective, with examples of programs of research in and about schools that address the inequities in educational outcomes and opportunities. She concludes the chapter with a discussion of the implications of such an expanded framework for research on educational risks and schooling as well as educational policy.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Objectives, Outcomes of Education, Risk, Educational Change

Jagers, Robert J.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Flay, Brian R. (2009). The Impact of Age and Type of Intervention on Youth Violent Behaviors, Journal of Primary Prevention. This study compared the impact of the Aban Aya Youth Project (AAYP; Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 158: 377-384, 2004) social development classroom curriculum (SDC), school/family/community (SC) intervention curriculum, and a health enhancement curriculum (HEC) attention placebo control on changes over time in violent behaviors among participating youth. Grade 5 pretest and grades 5-8 posttest data were used to investigate the possibility of differential intervention effects, especially the extent to which the SDC and SC interventions were differentially efficacious across age. Unlike most previous investigations of AAYP intervention effects, this study included youth who joined the study after baseline data collection in the outcome analyses. Findings indicated that, regardless of age level, the SDC limited the growth of violence of participating students when compared to students in the control condition. In the SC, however, reduction in the growth of violence emerged only among older participants. Importantly, this included joiners who received less exposure to the intervention. Findings for the SDC are consistent with recent meta-analyses of school based programs, whereas SC findings suggest that violence prevention curricula alone are not sufficient for highly mobile students and that interventions for such populations need to engage multiple social ecological systems. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors present promising violence prevention findings, and they also provide important answers to dosage and developmental timing questions with their analyses of these longitudinal data.   [More]  Descriptors: Intervention, Prevention, Grade 5, Social Development

Jerome, Elisabeth M.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C. (2009). Teacher-Child Relationships from Kindergarten to Sixth Grade: Early Childhood Predictors of Teacher-Perceived Conflict and Closeness, Social Development. This article examined general trends in teacher-reported conflict and closeness among 878 children from kindergarten through sixth grade, and examined early childhood characteristics that predict differences in initial levels and growth of conflict and closeness over time. Results indicated modest stability of teacher-perceived conflict and closeness through sixth grade, with relatively greater stability in perceptions of conflict. Levels of conflict at kindergarten were higher for children who were male, Black, had greater mean hours of childcare, had lower academic achievement scores, and had greater externalizing behavior. Children identified as Black and those with less sensitive mothers were at greater risk for increased conflict with teachers over time. Levels of teacher-reported closeness were lower when children were male, had lower quality home environments, and had lower academic achievement scores. The gap in closeness ratings between males and females increased in the middle elementary school years. Additional analyses were conduced to explore differences in teacher ratings of conflict between Black and White students.   [More]  Descriptors: Conflict, Academic Achievement, Children, White Students

Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C. (2009). School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use, Journal of Drug Education. Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The results confirmed that likelihood of such use was higher when social bonding factors were weak and social learning factors were strong. Results also showed the social bonds' impact to be mediated by social learning factors. Policy implications are discussed briefly.   [More]  Descriptors: Socialization, Drug Abuse, High School Seniors, At Risk Persons

Carter-Edwards, Lori; Godette, Dionne C.; White, Sumitra Shantakumar; Tyson, William (2009). A Conceptual Framework for Studying Alcohol Intake and Blood Pressure on Historically Black College and University Campuses, Journal of Drug Education. Drinking increases the risk of elevated blood pressure, a risk factor for chronic ailments such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The experience of elevated blood pressure in young adulthood may be critical for the development of these diseases later in life. College campuses are venues replete with young adults, and drinking is a popular activity in these settings. Because Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) produce a large proportion of black college graduates, understanding the social context of drinking among young blacks attending HBCUs is important in understanding the role and characteristics of drinking as a risk factor for the development of elevated blood pressure. This article reviews existing literature on alcohol and blood pressure and proposes a conceptual framework linking socioenvironmental factors, stress, and alcohol consumption at HBCUs in the context of elevated blood pressure among young blacks. Recommendations for future research are also proposed.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Black Colleges, Drinking, Young Adults

Meert, Kathleen L.; Briller, Sherylyn H.; Myers Schim, Stephanie; Thurston, Celia; Kabel, Allison (2009). Examining the Needs of Bereaved Parents in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Qualitative Study, Death Studies. The pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is a high-tech setting aimed at restoring health to critically ill children. When childhood death occurs in the PICU, it constitutes a special context for parent bereavement. The purpose of this interdisciplinary qualitative research was to gain a deeper understanding of parents' needs around the time of their child's death in the PICU. Through interviews and focus groups with bereaved parents and hospital chaplains, categories of parents' needs emerged. Deeper understanding of parents' needs will allow health professionals to better support parents during bereavement as well as to provide more customized care.   [More]  Descriptors: Grief, Qualitative Research, Focus Groups, Health Personnel

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