Bibliography: African Americans (page 1203 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Nancy S. Landale, Ronald M. Cervero, Tuere A. Bowles, Sedra Spano, Sarah L. Yi, Matthew Atencio, Thomas D. Raedeke, Heidi M. Blanck, Louie F. Rodriguez, and Monica D. Foust.

Steiner, Benjamin (2009). Assessing Static and Dynamic Influences on Inmate Violence Levels, Crime & Delinquency. Inmate misconduct creates problems for other inmates as well as correctional staff. Most empirical assessments of the correlates of inmate misconduct have been conducted at the individual level; however, a facility's level of misconduct may be of equal importance to prison management and state officials because these numbers can reflect order, or lack thereof, within an institution. Prior prison research also has typically been cross-sectional and conducted at one time point. In this study, the relative contributions of facility-and state-level predictors of misconduct, considered elements of the social organization of a prison, are examined across two time points for 512 state-operated prisons housing adult men. Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings reveal that predictors such as the racial composition of the inmates and staff, measures of administrative control, and state-level factors have both static and dynamic effects on levels of violent misconduct.   [More]  Descriptors: Institutionalized Persons, Correctional Institutions, State Officials, Racial Composition

Patterson, Steven T. (2009). The Effects of Teacher-Student Small Talk on Out-of-Seat Behavior, Education and Treatment of Children. This paper presents the results of a function-based study initiated by a general education teacher to reduce a general education student's out-of-seat behavior. Procedures included direct observation, data collection, functional behavior assessment using a Functional Assessment Protocol (FAP; Schroeder, n.d.), hypothesis development, and creating an intervention based on the hypothesis. The intervention, adapted from Wong and Wong (2001), involved greeting the target student at the classroom door and engaging him in conversation on any topic with comments from the teacher ranging from compliments to encouragement, coupled with verbal prompts (subtle, but direct instructions regarding teacher expectations). The intervention reduced the student's out-of-seat behavior.   [More]  Descriptors: Intervention, Functional Behavioral Assessment, Teacher Student Relationship, Classroom Communication

Hughes, Diane; Hagelskamp, Carolin; Way, Niobe; Foust, Monica D. (2009). The Role of Mothers' and Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic-Racial Socialization in Shaping Ethnic-Racial Identity among Early Adolescent Boys and Girls, Journal of Youth and Adolescence. The current study examined relationships between adolescents' and mothers' reports of ethnic-racial socialization and adolescents' ethnic-racial identity. The sample included 170 sixth graders (49% boys, 51% girls) and their mothers, all of whom identified as Black, Puerto Rican, Dominican, or Chinese. Two dimensions of ethnic-racial socialization (cultural socialization and preparation for bias) were evaluated alongside three dimensions of ethnic-racial identity (exploration, affirmation and belonging, and behavioral engagement). Mothers' reports of their cultural socialization predicted adolescents' reports, but only adolescents' reports predicted adolescents' ethnic-racial identity processes. Mothers' reports of preparation for bias predicted boys' but not girls' reports of preparation for bias. Again, only adolescents' reports of preparation for bias predicted their ethnic-racial identity. Thus, several gender differences in relationships emerged, with mothers' and adolescents' perceptions of cultural socialization, in particular, playing a more important role in girls' than in boys' identity processes. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescent Development, Socialization, Mothers, Racial Identification

Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe (2009). Public Ethnic Regard and Perceived Socioeconomic Stratification: Associations with Well-Being among Dominican and Black American Youth, Journal of Early Adolescence. As the U.S. Latino population continues to diversify, it is necessary to understand their experiences of minority status and its implications for well-being. The present cross-sectional study investigates early adolescents' perceptions of public regard for their ethnic group and perceptions of the extent to which opportunity is differentiated by their socioeconomic background (perceived socioeconomic stratification). A comparative approach is taken to examine the extent to which the experiences of Dominican American youth (n = 103) mirrored those of their Black American peers (n = 129). For all youth, more positive public ethnic regard is associated with fewer somatic symptoms, whereas more perceived socioeconomic stratification is associated with more somatic symptoms. For Black youth, in contrast to Dominican youth, lower public regard is associated with higher self-esteem among those who perceives more socioeconomic stratification. Implications for Dominican and Black American youths' experiences of minority status are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Socioeconomic Status, Ethnic Groups, Socioeconomic Background

Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice (2009). Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior, Journal of Marriage and Family. Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 – 1995 and 2001 – 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context, hypothetical cohorts specified in terms of race and mother's education are followed, from age 11 to age 24, as they move through 6 family-related statuses. The results indicate that, for both Black and White women, a higher level of maternal education is generally associated with less cohabitation, less marriage, fewer first births, and a higher percentage of women who experience none of those transitions before age 24. Racial and social background differences are conceptually and empirically distinct. Because mother's education is associated with substantially different trajectories of early family behavior for both Blacks and Whites, we argue that social background merits increased attention in research on contemporary American family patterns.   [More]  Descriptors: Mothers, Females, Family Life, Marriage

McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D. (2009). Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates, American Journal of Health Behavior. Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise, followed by appearance and mental health. Of the correlates, enjoyment and the use of self-management strategies were most strongly associated with activity level. Only 40% were aware that adults should accumulate 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most days (i.e., 5) of the week for health benefits. Conclusions: Findings highlight the importance of teaching self-management skills and fostering exercise enjoyment in health promotion programs for college students.   [More]  Descriptors: College Students, Physical Activities, Health Promotion, Physical Activity Level

Blanck, Heidi M.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Atienza, Audie A.; Yi, Sarah L.; Zhang, Jian; Masse, Louise C. (2009). Factors Influencing Lunchtime Food Choices among Working Americans, Health Education & Behavior. There is growing interest in the usefulness of the workplace as a site for promotion of healthful food choices. The authors therefore analyzed data of U.S. adults (N = 1,918) who reported working outside the home and eating lunch. The majority (84.0%) of workers had a break room. About one half (54.0%) purchased lunch [greater than or equal] 2 times/week, with higher percentages for males, Blacks, younger (age 18-34 years) versus older adults (age 55 years or older), and obese versus normal-weight persons. The most important lunch food choice value was convenience (34.3%), followed by taste (27.8%), cost (20.8%), and health (17.1%). The typical source for purchasing lunch was a fast-food restaurant (43.4%), followed by on-site cafeteria/snack shop (25.3%), full-service restaurant (16.9%), supermarket (5.2%), vending machine (4.4%), and convenience store (4.0%); younger adults and those less educated relied more on fast-food places. This study identifies individual factors and values that may influence future dietary health initiatives in the work site.   [More]  Descriptors: Nutrition, Food, Dining Facilities, Nutrition Instruction

Atencio, Matthew; Wright, Jan (2009). "Ballet It's Too Whitey": Discursive Hierarchies of High School Dance Spaces and the Constitution of Embodied Feminine Subjectivities, Gender and Education. This article investigates (i) how the structuring practices and meanings associated with dance classes at an inner-city American high school operated as institutional spaces (re)producing "dividing practices" that supported racial and classed hierarchies; (ii) how these racist structures were created and maintained relative to dominant notions of embodiment, "race", social class, femininity, and dance; and (iii) the way these dominant practices and hierarchies were managed by two "black" young women at the high school in order to construct particular modes of self-governance. The analysis suggests that educators be attuned to the role that spaces play in creating particular types of "docile" bodies and the strategies enacted by young people to create alternative embodied practices and subjectivities.   [More]  Descriptors: High Schools, Racial Bias, Social Attitudes, Feminism

Park, Julie J. (2009). Are We Satisfied? A Look at Student Satisfaction with Diversity at Traditionally White Institutions, Review of Higher Education. Using a national longitudinal dataset of college students, this study examines satisfaction with the ethnic diversity of the student body and faculty at traditionally White institutions. The strongest predictor of satisfaction with diversity for White and Latino/a students was the heterogeneity of the institution; the strongest predictors for Black and Asian American students were satisfaction with community, peer interactions, and the overall college experience. The findings suggest that supporting positive peer interactions and a sense of community are critical parts of a positive campus racial climate, in addition to increasing the heterogeneity of the campus.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Predictor Variables, College Students, Satisfaction

Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Valentine, Thomas; Cervero, Ronald M.; Bowles, Tuere A. (2009). Rooted in the Soil: The Social Experiences of Black Graduate Students at a Southern Research University, Journal of Higher Education. The social experiences of Black graduate alumni, 1962 to 2003, at a major Southern Research University were examined in a comprehensive forced choice and open-ended survey. Characteristics that distinguish this study from others include the large sample of 678 participants and the longitudinal span of four decades.   [More]  Descriptors: Graduate Students, Research Universities, Peer Relationship, Social Experience

Kronick, Robert; Thomas, Denis (2009). Carl Upchurch: Journey from Prisoner Citizen to Educator, AASA Journal of Scholarship & Practice. Carl Upchurch was born and raised in Philadelphia in the 1950's. His mother, uncle and grandmother socialized him during his early childhood. His grandmother was his primary caregiver and a prostitute, his father drifted in and out of his life, and his uncle died in a gunfight. All this shaped Upchurch as a person and led to his development of the term "niggerization." His voice became powerful for both education and corrections. This article presents the story of how Upchurch became an educator after living a life of a prisoner citizen.   [More]  Descriptors: Institutionalized Persons, Grandparents Raising Grandchildren, Family Environment, Family Influence

Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Mueggenborg, Mary Garnand; Shea, Mary M. (2009). Impact of Trainings on Child Care Providers' Attitudes and Perceived Competence toward Inclusion: What Factors Are Associated with Change?, Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. This study examined a comprehensive modularized inclusion training program provided to 1,298 diverse early child care providers (center-based, family home, and license exempt settings) on providers' attitudes and perceived competence toward inclusion. Second, factors (number of trainings attended and provider characteristics) associated with positive changes were examined. All of the providers significantly changed their attitudes and perceived competence toward inclusion with substantial effect sizes; however, providers attending three or more sessions demonstrated more change compared to others. Examination of provider characteristics on outcomes revealed a race-ethnicity main effect in which Asian and Pacific Islander providers changed their attitudes toward inclusion more than other providers. The positive results of this study suggest that a modularized provider training approach may offer an avenue for improving inclusive child care as previous research revealed strong relationships between staff educational experiences and quality of care in inclusive child care settings.   [More]  Descriptors: Pacific Islanders, Child Caregivers, Effect Size, Educational Experience

Rodriguez, Louie F.; Conchas, Gilberto Q. (2009). Preventing Truancy and Dropout among Urban Middle School Youth: Understanding Community-Based Action from the Student's Perspective, Education and Urban Society. This case study explores how a community-based truancy prevention program mediates against absenteeism, truancy, and dropping out and positively transforms the lives of Black and Latina/Latino middle school youth. Findings suggest that community-school partnerships are critical in the quest to combat truancy and the alarming dropout rate among urban youth. This study also shows how committed individuals can work to engage and empower low-income urban youth who are disengaged from school. Extensive interviews and observations with Latina/Latino and Black youth demonstrate how the intervention program mediates against social and academic failure. Using grounded theory, this article explores four student-identified dimensions that impact his/her (re)engagement with school: (a) the importance of space that promotes peer relations, (b) incentive structures within programs, (c) the need for social networks, and (d) youth advocacy as a mechanism for institutional accountability. Implications for combating truancy, reducing dropout, and promoting student engagement are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Grounded Theory, African American Children, Intervention, Truancy

Morgan, Hani (2009). Gender, Racial, and Ethnic Misrepresentation in Children's Books: A Comparative Look, Childhood Education. How children's books portray various groups is very important for educators to consider. In many literate cultures, values and attitudes are transmitted through storytelling, often involving the use of children's books. Young children usually enjoy having a book read to them. Unfortunately, children's literature traditionally has not been authentic in representing the experiences of many ethnic and racial minority groups. This comparative review of research discusses findings of selected studies concerning gender, racial, and ethnic misrepresentation in children's books. In addition, it offers suggestions for educators on how to deal with this concern.   [More]  Descriptors: Childrens Literature, Minority Groups, Racial Factors, Racial Bias

Edmonds, Ellen; O'Donoghue, Cathleen; Spano, Sedra; Algozzine, Robert F. (2009). Learning when School Is out, Journal of Educational Research. Even with current evidence-based preschool programming efforts for children from high-risk backgrounds, many children vary in their skill levels at school entry. The authors examined the influence of using an evidence-based literacy curriculum during a 6-week summer program. The authors documented improvements in children's letter-naming, picture-naming, and rhyming skills when compared with a nonparticipating control group. Differences between the treatment and control groups were not as strong for the children's alliteration skills. These positive results suggest that a 6-week summer prevention program could increase the likelihood that children from high-risk backgrounds will have a positive beginning school experience.   [More]  Descriptors: Summer Programs, Prevention, Educational Experience, At Risk Students

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