Bibliography: African Americans (page 1198 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Maja Djukic, Margaret E. Shippen, Elaine Carlson, Molly E. Ross, Robert Tobias, Michael J. Morrier, David C. Berliner, Pedro Noguera, David E. Houchins, and Gene V. Glass.

Byrd-Blake, Marie; Hundley, Eddie (2012). Promoting Teacher Development in a Racially/Ethnically, Socioeconomically, Linguistically and Academically Diverse School: A US Case Study, Professional Development in Education. This article provides analysis of a site-based professional development model that is grounded in teacher best practices. Developed by the administration and teacher leaders of a racially/ethnically, socioeconomically, linguistically and academically diverse school in the USA, the teacher-centered coaching model described is an example of an internal professional development program that aligns with research and involves exemplary best practices where the teachers are empowered to: identify the area of focus for growth; gather information about best practices related to the area of development; analyze and interpret the information gathered by research; facilitate training sessions on the topics of interest identified by the teachers; and engage all teaching faculty in study as a learning community. As indicated by analysis of a post-program survey, this practice-based approach to the development of teachers enabled the improvement of their instructional methods and assisted in building knowledge that was useful beyond a particular reform program. A critical look at suggestions for improvement of the model based on international standards of best practice for professional development of teacher educators is also offered.   [More]  Descriptors: Faculty Development, Professional Development, Coaching (Performance), Best Practices

Fairchild, Susan; Tobias, Robert; Corcoran, Sean; Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Noguera, Pedro (2012). White and Black Teachers' Job Satisfaction: Does Relational Demography Matter?, Urban Education. Data on the impact of student, teacher, and principal racial and gender composition in urban schools on teacher work outcomes are limited. This study, a secondary data analysis of White and Black urban public school teachers using data taken from the restricted use 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), examines the effects of relational demography on teacher job satisfaction adjusting for other known determinants of job satisfaction. Relational demography is conceptualized as a set of racial and gender congruency items between teachers and principals, teachers and teachers, and teachers and students. The results of the study show that some components of relational demography directly affect teacher job satisfaction, over and above the effects of work-related attitudes.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, Job Satisfaction, Demography, Data Analysis

Simms, Kathryn (2012). Is the Black-White Achievement Gap a Public Sector Effect? An Examination of Student Achievement in the Third Grade, Journal of At-Risk Issues. Prior research has suggested private school education in middle school and high school as a solution for the Black-White achievement gap. However, more recent research calls this solution into question. Additionally, research increasingly implicates third grade as being of preeminent importance in driving students' subsequent academic achievement. Consequently, this study relied on a nationally representative sample to compare standardized test scores of Black and White third graders who attended private schools. Regression analysis revealed achievement gaps in reading, math, and science. These achievement gaps were not significantly different from those detected in public schools. Hence, school vouchers may be inadvisable for most minority students.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Gap, Minority Group Students, Standardized Tests

Liu, Yuliang (2012). Effects of Integrating Multimedia into the Third Grade Mathematics Curriculum to Improve Student Learning, Journal of Educational Technology Systems. This project was designed to test Mayer's multimedia theory in an elementary school to improve students' mathematics learning for low-income children. The study designed and developed two multimedia mathematics experiments in 3rd grade: 9's multiplication experiment and geometric solids experiment. The two experimental lessons were implemented in two 3rd grade classes of low-income children in the United States in January and May 2010, respectively. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data in both experiments. Both experiments found that the participating teacher and students scored very high respectively; the participating students were very attentive to multimedia mathematics instruction; and the participating students scored significantly higher in mathematics quizzes at posttest at the end of the implementation than at pretest prior to the implementation. The project has theoretical and practical implications for international kindergarten through high school education.   [More]  Descriptors: Mathematics Education, Low Income Groups, Pretests Posttests, Geometric Concepts

Carlson, Elaine; Bitterman, Amy; Jenkins, Frank (2012). Home Literacy Environment and Its Role in the Achievement of Preschoolers with Disabilities, Journal of Special Education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the home literacy environment of a nationally representative sample of preschoolers with disabilities and their subsequent receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension skills using data from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study. Results from linear regressions indicated that only a small amount of the total variance in children's receptive language and passage comprehension skills was explained by the home literacy environment. However, the home literacy environment of 3- to 5-year-olds with less severe disabilities was a significant predictor of scores on a test of receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension in later years. The home literacy environment was not a significant predictor of receptive vocabulary or reading comprehension for children with moderate to severe disabilities.   [More]  Descriptors: Preschool Children, Receptive Language, Vocabulary Development, Reading Comprehension

Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A. (2012). Racial Disparities in Preschool Special Education Eligibility for Five Southern States, Journal of Special Education. More than 67,000 preschoolers with disabilities across five states were examined for disproportionate special education eligibilities using risk ratios (RRs). Results indicated children classified as American Indian (RR = 2.25) and Black (RR = 1.64) were disproportionate in one state, whereas children classified as Asian, Hispanic, and White showed no disproportionality. Significant differences were found for preschoolers under orthopedic impairment (F = 43.99, p = 0.002, eta[superscript 2] = 0.971). Child ethnicity was significant for speech or language impairments (F = 3.313, p = 0.034, eta[superscript 2] = 0.424), mental retardation (F = 65.215, p = 0.001, eta[superscript 2] = 0.963), multiple disabilities (F = 5.244, p = 0.048, eta[superscript 2] = 0.636), hearing impairments (F = 4.181, p = 0.047, eta[superscript 2] = 0.611), other health impairments (F = 24.148, p = 0.003, eta[superscript 2] = 0.906), autism (F = 48.570, p = 0.001, eta[superscript 2] = 0.930), and developmental delay (F = 6.407, p = 0.003, eta[superscript 2] = 0.631).   [More]  Descriptors: Special Education, Developmental Delays, American Indians, Language Impairments

National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (2012). School-Based Health Centers and Academic Success. Poor academic outcomes and high dropout rates are major concerns of educators, policy makers, and parents alike–and poor health severely limits a child's motivation and ability to learn. Recent research confirms that "health disparities affect educational achievement". Improving students' health is integral to education reform. "School-Based Health Centers" ("SBHCs")–the convergence of public health, primary care, and mental health–provide an optimal setting to "foster learning readiness and academic achievement" while giving children the resources they need to improve their health.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Educational Change, School Health Services, Learning Readiness

Schmitz, Steven A.; Nourse, Steven W.; Ross, Molly E. (2012). Increasing Teacher Diversity: Growing Your Own through Partnerships, Education. That the student population in public schools is becoming increasingly diverse is not all that surprising. Studies indicate that in less than three decades, a majority of children will likely belong to race-ethnic minorities. Conversely, teacher candidates are not keeping pace with the diversity ratio of students in the PK-12 public school classrooms. The diversity gap between teachers and the students they teach is only widening (McNulty & Brown, 2009). Central Washington University and the Renton School District have partnered to create a Recruiting Washington Teacher Academy dedicated to recruiting high school students of color to become teachers. The Academy encourages high school graduation, opens doors to higher education, and provides an orientation to the teaching profession.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Recruitment, Teaching (Occupation), Partnerships in Education, College School Cooperation

Forry, Nicole; Wessel, Julia; Simkin, Shana; Rodrigues, Katherine (2012). Getting into the Black Box: How Do Low-Income Parents Make Choices about Early Care and Education in Maryland? Publication #2012-42, Child Trends. Existing literature highlights the positive influence of high-quality early care and education on the development of young children, and particularly young children in impoverished or low-income families. Reflecting the promising influence of high-quality early care and education on children's developmental outcomes, policy makers and state administrators in Maryland are currently in the process of developing a statewide Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS), entitled Maryland EXCELS. This system has two primary purposes: (1) to improve the quality of care offered to children by formalizing a professional development system that rewards high-quality practices; and (2) to inform parents about the quality of care offered by providers. Maryland EXCELS will be modeled, in part, after those currently being implemented or piloted in 26 other states and counties. One key element to a successful QRIS is providing parents with information about the quality of providers as they are choosing an early care and education arrangement. This research brief aims to provide information that can help shape the development of Maryland EXCELS through examination of low-income parents' experiences accessing and choosing among early care and education arrangements for their preschool-aged children. Drawing from qualitative data, this brief sheds light on parents' definitions of high-quality care, priorities in selecting early care and education arrangements, the process parents engage in when selecting an early care and education arrangement, and challenges parents face when choosing a provider.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Care, Decision Making, School Choice, Early Childhood Education

Houchins, David E.; Shippen, Margaret E. (2012). Welcome to a Special Issue about the School-to-Prison Pipeline: The Pathway to Modern Institutionalization, Teacher Education and Special Education. The aim of this issue is to provide readers with a better understanding of the inexplicable connection between school, community, and incarceration, and how better prepared professionals can make a difference in the lives of youth in the school-to-prison pipeline (STPP). This issue provides readers with an awareness of the current status of the STPP and suggests the advancement of quality professional development (PD) research and practices. First, a brief historical perspective is provided on deinstitutionalization in special education. The argument is made that special education institutions of the past are eerily similar to juvenile justice (JJ) facilities of today. The contention is that JJ institutions and the STPP are evolving in a similar manner as special education did more than 40 years ago, providing the field with a cautionary tale filled with a sundry of potential and pitfalls. Then, a brief description is provided with regard to the characteristics of those in the STPP and those incarcerated. Connections are made to educational and civil right legislative mandates. Finally, each article in this issue is introduced. The articles are presented in the context that quality PD for the professionals who work with students along the STPP continuum can and do transform the lives of disenfranchised youth.   [More]  Descriptors: Special Education, Civil Rights, Normalization (Disabilities), Juvenile Justice

Ferreira, Maria M.; Grueber, David; Yarema, Sandra (2012). A Community Partnership to Facilitate Urban Elementary Students' Access to the Outdoors, School Community Journal. Today's children spend less and less time in the outdoors, leading Richard Louv in 2008 to coin the term "nature deficit disorder." Louv pointed out that experiences with nature are essential to a child's physical and emotional development and that the lack of these types of experiences has led to an increase in child obesity, attention disorders, and depression. Poor urban students in particular have little access to experiences with nature, and outdoor classrooms are increasingly being used to foster a sense of community in schools and to provide students with learning opportunities related to nature. This field study describes a partnership formed between a local university, a school district, and a community organization in order to develop and implement outdoor classrooms and curriculum in seven local elementary schools. Results based on teacher reflections on using the outdoors for educational purposes, collected before and after the implementation of the program, indicated a shift in teachers' perceptions about the value of the outdoors for instructional purposes which translated into a greater number of learning experiences for their students and helped foster a sense of community in their schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, Educational Environment, Partnerships in Education, Elementary School Students

Modica, Marianne (2012). Constructions of Race among Religiously Conservative College Students, Multicultural Perspectives. The "Whites as victims" motif in conversations about race has been well documented in recent decades. When discussing affirmative action hiring policies, a common belief expressed by Whites is that people of color have been permitted to progress unfairly at the expense of harder working Whites. Whites using this discourse see themselves as victims of a political process that ignores individual responsibility and caters to people of color who are not willing to work toward their own success. Using students' Blackboard discussion forum postings, the author analyzes ideas about race expressed by students in education classes at a small denominational Christian college in the northeastern United States, and compares these students' constructions of race to those analyzed in previous research using Whites as subjects in both religious and non-religious settings. The author argues that these students do not differ in their constructions of race and racism from other Whites in non-religious settings. Further, with more complete education and intentional conversation about the history of racism in the United States, these students are able to incorporate understandings of deeper structural causes of racial inequality.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Bias, Race, Church Related Colleges, Affirmative Action

Parsons, Julie; Ridley, Kimberly (2012). Identity, Affinity, Reality: Making the Case for Affinity Groups in Elementary School, Independent School. Affinity groups are places where students build connections and process "ouch" moments from their classes. Children talk about the isolation they sometimes feel. The relationships students gain through race-based affinity groups enable them to feel less alone with their emotions and help them build a stronger sense of self. At the same time, faculty facilitators gain valuable insights into ways their school's curriculum and culture can support children on the road to identity development. Schools interested in launching affinity groups for elementary age students of color can draw from the experiences of those who have been traveling this path now for several years. Although every school may bring unique challenges to the table, this short list of goals can guide educators in their program development. This list includes: (1) Conduct a Racial Climate Assessment to obtain useful data about students' school experiences; (2) Facilitate positive identity exploration, self-awareness, pride, and self-esteem through books, games, discussion, and structured play activities that connect students to each other; (3) Provide students with the opportunity to discuss topics of race, identity, and diversity in a safe space that will enable students of color to develop their voice; (4) Encourage and develop leadership skills; (5) Develop accurate language and vocabulary to describe themselves and others; (6) Increase the school's ability to recruit and retain families and teachers of color; and (7) The purpose of the affinity group is to provide a majority experience for students regularly who are in the minority at school.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary School Students, Racial Identification, African American Students, Minority Group Students

DC Action for Children (2012). D.C.'s Achievement Gap: Why Place Matters. Data Snapshot. Every child deserves educational opportunity and the chance to achieve, no matter his or her school, neighborhood or background. Unfortunately, large and persistent disparities in achievement among public school students in the District of Columbia indicate that all children here may not have the same opportunities. This Data Snapshot examines citywide achievement on the DC Comprehensive Assessment System (DC CAS) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), looking in greater depth at achievement in the fourth and eighth grades. This Data Snapshot also suggests the need for deeper analysis of the role that place and neighborhood–both where children live and where they attend school–may play in the achievement gap.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Gap, Educational Opportunities, National Competency Tests

Nichols, Sharon L.; Glass, Gene V.; Berliner, David C. (2012). High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Updated Analyses with NAEP Data, Education Policy Analysis Archives. The present research is a follow-up study of earlier published analyses that looked at the relationship between high-stakes testing pressure and student achievement in 25 states. Using the previously derived Accountability Pressure Index (APR) as a measure of state-level policy pressure for performance on standardized tests, a series of correlation analyses was conducted to explore relationships between high-stakes testing accountability pressure and student achievement as measured by the National Assessment for Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and math. Consistent with earlier work, stronger positive correlations between the pressure index and NAEP performance in fourth grade math and weaker connections between pressure and fourth and eighth grade reading performance were found. Policy implications and future directions for research are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, High Stakes Tests, Accountability, Testing

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