Bibliography: African Americans (page 1191 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Suzanne E. Eckes, Matthew W. Kreuter, Silvie Colman, Ruben G. Rumbaut, Hidehiro Endo, Walter M. Kimbrough, Robert Emmet Jones, Sarah E. Boslaugh, Paul Chamness Miller, and Black Issues in Higher Education.

Kent, James B. (2005). Impact of Foreign-Born Persons on HIV Diagnosis Rates among Blacks in King County, Washington, AIDS Education and Prevention. To characterize HIV and AIDS cases in foreign-born persons in King County, Washington, HIV surveillance data were analyzed by place of birth, race and ethnicity, mode of transmission, and year of HIV diagnosis. The proportion of new HIV diagnoses among foreign-born Blacks increased from 3.5% during the 3-year period from 1995 to 1997 to 7.5% during the 3-year period from 2001 to 2003 while remaining stable at 11-12% among native-born Blacks. Rates of HIV diagnoses are 2.8 times higher among foreign-born Blacks (1.7%) than among native-born Blacks (0.6%). Heterosexual transmission accounts for at least 52% of prevalent cases among foreign-born Blacks but only 12% of native-born Blacks. These findings have implications for HIV prevention planning in King County. States and local areas should consider reviewing their own surveillance data to determine the possible impact of foreign-born persons on HIV diagnosis rates.   [More]  Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Immigrants, Blacks, African Americans

Joyce, Ted; Gibson, Diane; Colman, Silvie (2005). The Changing Association between Prenatal Participation in WIC and Birth Outcomes in New York City, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. We analyze the relationship between prenatal WIC participation and birth outcomes in New York City from 1988 – 2001. The analysis is unique for several reasons. First, we have over 800,000 births to women on Medicaid, the largest sample ever used to analyze prenatal participation in WIC. Second, we focus on measures of fetal growth distinct from preterm birth, since there is little clinical support for a link between nutritional supplementation and premature delivery. Third, we restrict the primary analysis to women on Medicaid who have no previous live births and who initiate prenatal care within the first four months of pregnancy. Our goal is to lessen heterogeneity between WIC and non-WIC participants by limiting the sample to highly motivated women who have no experience with WIC from a previous pregnancy. Fourth, we analyze a large sub-sample of twin deliveries. Multifetal pregnancies increase the risk of anemia and fetal growth retardation and thus may benefit more than singletons from nutritional supplementation. We find no relationship between prenatal WIC participation and measures of fetal growth among singletons. We find a modest pattern of association between WIC and fetal growth among U.S.-born Black twins. Our findings suggest that prenatal participation in WIC has had a minimal effect on adverse birth outcomes in New York City.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, Prenatal Care, Pregnancy, Premature Infants

Hafner, Madeline M.; Capper, Colleen A. (2005). Defining Spirituality: Critical Implications for the Practice and Research of Educational Leadership, Journal of School Leadership. This essay problematizes the current discourses on spirituality and leadership, particularly in terms of how spirituality is defined. To this end, the authors provide a brief overview of the different definitions of spirituality as explicated in the literature on spirituality and leadership, identify the underlying epistemologies of these definitions, and discuss why epistemology matters when thinking about spirituality and leadership. Additionally, the authors outline how an "endarkened feminist epistemology" (Dillard, 2000) can assist our thinking about spirituality and leadership, and advance not a definition per se but perspectives to consider when teaching and conducting research on or about spirituality and leadership, and when practicing leadership that takes into account social justice.   [More]  Descriptors: Religious Factors, Instructional Leadership, Educational Practices, Educational Research

Walker, Marlon A. (2005). Black Coaches Are Ready, Willing … and Still Waiting: By All Accounts, There Is No Shortage of Qualified Black Coaches to Lead Division I Teams, so Why Are There so Few?, Black Issues in Higher Education. It seems those who have a say in Division I-A athletic personnel matters–athletic directors, booster club leaders–haven't heard the news. There are plenty of qualified Black football and basketball coaches ready to step up and report to work. Out of 117 Division I-A football programs, there are currently three Black head coaches. The number hardly matches the nearly 50 percent of Black players who hit the field each year. Dr. Robert W. Ethridge, vice president for equal opportunity programs at Emory University in Atlanta and president of the American Association for Affirmative Action, says people look at the hiring practices in coaching to be special situations where favoritism plays a big part in the process because they are unique. In sports, he says, some coaches choose to bring in their assistants because they have a working knowledge of the coach's philosophies and behaviors. "They start to identify people they want to bring in, people that know them," Ethridge says. "Quite often, those are not Black coaches. It's something similar in medicine and science. You recruit with major funding, but the requirement is that the researcher will want to bring his own research assistants with him. The argument is if the researcher can't bring his own team, he'd have to start over." Floyd Keith, executive director of the Black Coaches Association, based in Indianapolis says, "It's a very complex issue." Keith, along with Dr.  Keith, along with Dr. Richard Lapchick, director of the Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sports at the University of Central Florida, says hiring Blacks for the top head-coaching jobs should not be a problem. "Call it by any name. It's an injustice," Keith says. Descriptors: Team Sports, Ethics, College Athletics, Higher Education

Alba, Richard D.; Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Marotz, Karen (2005). A Distorted Nation: Perceptions of Racial/Ethnic Group Sizes and Attitudes toward Immigrants and Other Minorities, Social Forces. Using a special module (MEUS) of the 2000 General Social Survey, we investigate Americans' perceptions of the racial and ethnic composition of the United States. We show that, because of innumeracy, it is critical to gauge perceptions through relative, rather than absolute, group sizes. Even so, it appears that, as of 2000, roughly half of Americans believed that whites had become a numerical minority; such perceptions were even more common among minority-group members than among whites. Majority-group respondents' perceptions of the relative sizes of minorities affect their attitudes towards immigrants, blacks and Hispanics, with those having the most distorted perceptions holding the most negative attitudes. Although perceptions of group sizes in the nation are linked to the perceived racial/ethnic composition of the communities where respondents reside, the effects of the former on attitudes are largely independent of the latter. Our findings highlight the frequently overlooked value of an old bromide against prejudice: education.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Composition, Negative Attitudes, Ethnic Groups, Whites

Rainey, Shirley A.; Jones, Robert Emmet (2005). Investigating Environmental Concerns and Health Issues in Clarksville, Tennessee, Negro Educational Review, The. Environmental degradation is a serious problem for millions of people who are unjustly exposed to environmental conditions that threaten their everyday survival. A growing body of research shows race and class as significant predictors to exposure to environmental hazards and associated health problems. Presented are perceptions of environmental problems and associated health risks of residents who live in a highly polluted community. These perceptions are based on the results of a survey of Black and White residents of the Red River community in Clarksville, Tennessee. Results show that Blacks are more concerned about environmental problems in their neighborhood, the overall quality of the local environment, and the seriousness of these problems than Whites. Blacks also perceive that they suffer more adverse health effects from exposure to contaminants than their White counterparts.   [More]  Descriptors: Environment, Public Health, Race, Social Class

Few, April L. (2005). The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters, Family Relations. Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social support during and after their stay in the shelter were compared. Future research directions and suggestions to improve services are presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, Family Violence, Rural Areas, African Americans

Black Issues in Higher Education (2005). Study: Blacks Are Less Likely to Seek Genetic Counseling to Assess Cancer Risk. Black women with a family history of breast cancer are much less likely than Whites to get genetic counseling, in part because of the mistaken notion that the genetic form of the illness is a White woman's disease, researchers say. While breast cancer generally is more common among White women, some data suggest both races have similar rates of the genetic flaws, known as BRCA mutations, which greatly increase the risk of developing the disease. Also, breast-cancer mortality rates are higher in Black women. In a study published in April's Journal of the American Medical Association, researchers questioned 408 women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Only 16 of the 71 Blacks studied–roughly 23 percent–got genetic counseling, compared with 184 of the 310 White women, or 60 percent. Descriptors: African Americans, Cancer, Whites, Racial Differences

Walton, Eugene (2005). Philip Reid and the Statue of Freedom, Social Education. The Statue of Freedom stands at the very top of the dome of the Capitol, where Congress meets in Washington, D.C. The dome, with its statue, is a symbol recognized all over the world. Thomas Crawford, an American sculptor, created the Statue of Freedom in clay in a studio in Rome, Italy. A plaster model was cast in five major sections and shipped in crates to the United States. After various mishaps, the crates arrived in Washington, D.C., in March 1859. An Italian craftsman assembled the huge plaster model of Freedom for all to see while the Capitol dome moved toward completion. This craftsman, however, refused to reveal how to take the model apart for transport to the bronze foundry. He wanted more money to finish the job. Philip Reid, a black laborer, was called upon to figure out how to disassemble the sculpture into its five large sections without breaking it. In this article, the author provides the details of how the Statue of Freedom was created and the contribution made by Philip Reid to the historical task. Descriptors: Sculpture, Slavery, Freedom, United States History

Eckes, Suzanne E. (2005). The Perceived Barriers to Integration in the Mississippi Delta, Journal of Negro Education. The barriers to educational integration in one Mississippi Delta town are identified. Although de facto segregation among students exist throughout the country, in Mississippi Delta many white students attend private academies that do not offer greater educational opportunity than the predominantly Black public schools. Descriptors: White Students, Racial Segregation, Educational Opportunities, African Americans

Black Issues in Higher Education (2005). Lawmaker Says Black Voters Angered by Langston Controversy. A Black state lawmaker said recently that Black voters feel betrayed by Democratic leaders who agreed to a higher education bond plan that may threaten the future of the Black college in Tulsa. Rep. Opio Toure, D-Oklahoma City, also says he plans to apply for the president's job at Langston and is considering running for statewide office as an independent when his term in the state House ends next year. Toure did not specify which statewide office he may seek. Langston President Ernest Holloway, 73, is retiring after 25 years but will continue to serve until a new president is hired. Toure is serving his sixth two-year term in the House and cannot seek re-election due to term limits.   According to Toure, Langston supporters and other Blacks were angered by the passage of the $475 million higher education plan agreed to by Democratic Gov. Brad Henry, Republican House Speaker Todd Hiett and Senate President Pro Tem Cal Hobson, D-Lexington. Among other things, the measure, which was sent to the Senate for action, asks state regents to examine expanding course offerings at colleges in the Tulsa area, which include branches of the University of Oklahoma and Oklahoma State University. Toure said no one consulted with members of the legislative Black caucus before the provision was inserted in the bill and that additional courses could destroy Langston's Tulsa campus. Descriptors: Higher Education, College Presidents, Black Colleges, African Americans

Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Naleid, Kimberly S.; Brownson, Ross C. (2005). Misclassification of Physical Activity Level Due to Exclusion of Workplace Activity, Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. This study examined the effect of including workplace physical activity in calculating the proportion of adults meeting Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for physical activity. Data on leisure-time and workplace activity were collected from 1,090 Black and White adults in St. Louis, MO. A series of assumptions were used to equate workplace and leisure-time physical activity. Depending on the assumptions used, we found an absolute increase of 5.5% to 8.4% of individuals meeting the moderate activity guidelines and an absolute increase of 1.5% to 1.7% for the vigorous activity guidelines. Men were significantly more likely than women to be reclassified as meeting the vigorous standard ([chi[superscript 2]] = 8.016, p less than 0.005) when workplace activity was included. The existing policy of excluding workplace activity in the definition of physical activity has led to an underestimate of adults meeting the CDC guidelines, especially among men.   [More]  Descriptors: Physical Activity Level, Classification, Adults, African Americans

Miller, Paul Chamness; Endo, Hidehiro (2005). Journey to Becoming a Teacher: The Experiences of Students of Color, Multicultural Education. This study deals with the problem concerning the lack of students in teacher education. Researchers investigated students of color who are already enrolled in teacher education programs. The central question to this study is: What draws students of color to teaching? In order to answer this particular question, other guiding questions are also appropriate: (1) Do family members who are teachers have an impact on the student of color's decision to become a teacher? (2) Is parental support an important part of the decision process for students color? (3) Are there role models who have an influence on the student of color's decision to teach? (4) Do previous experiences have an effect on choosing teaching as a career for students of color? These guiding questions form the basis for this study, from which several findings emerged and are described. There were eight participants in this study, all of whom were undergraduate students of color in the teacher education programs of a large midwestern state-funded university and a smaller state-funded college in the northeast. The researchers distributed a questionnaire to each of the participants which asked questions to elicit responses addressing the study's guiding questions. There were eight questions, all of which were open-ended, where participants were encouraged to write as much as they could. Following the completion of the questionnaire, one of the researchers interviewed the participants. The data presented in this study are echoed by the voices of the students of color who have decided to pursue their career as an educator. These voices are genuine, representing the essence of the experiences of the participants. The assertions which emerged from this study lead to several implications which are summarized.   [More]  Descriptors: Student Diversity, Teaching Experience, Student Experience, Teacher Education Programs

Kimbrough, Walter M. (2005). Should Black Fraternities and Sororities Abolish Undergraduate Chapters?, About Campus. In this article, the author addresses the issues surrounding black fraternities and sororities on campus today, shares what he learned about black fraternalism, and presents his thoughts on the subject. Among the concerns facing black fraternal organizations on campus today include: (1) Most chapters had very small numbers; (2) They did not always get along with one another; and (3) The vast majority did not follow the 1990 decision by their respective national organizations to abolish the practice of hazing during pledging. Undergraduates indicated that hazing proves that people love the organization, while graduate members see hazing as a real threat to the organization. Undergraduates also admitted confusion because persons who hazed or were hazed now tell them not to do it. They appear to be in a stage of development that prevents them from understanding the big picture because it interferes with their immediate desires and perceived needs. The author believes that black fraternities and sororities should abolish undergraduate chapters only after they make a drastic, last-ditch attempt to save them by reworking membership intake and replacing it with a highly educational and engaging membership education program. If the leadership is unwilling to make this kind of stand, then it is necessary to abolish undergraduate chapters now. Otherwise, the courts will soon abolish black fraternal organizations altogether.   [More]  Descriptors: Hazing, Sororities, National Organizations, Fraternities

Keller, Bess (2005). Life Support, Teacher Magazine. In this article, the author introduces Peter Kinoti Inoti, the headmaster of a Kenyan primary school, who finds himself at the forefront of bringing AIDS education to a country that's remained silent about the disease for decades. Inoti, who had been a teacher at the primary level–grades 1-8–for more than two decades, juggles his duties as an educator with the need to support his family, all while taking a stand in the long-ignored battle against AIDS. Here, the author describes her experience, with Inoti and his family, during her visit to Nkubu, Kenya, to see what teachers in this relatively stable East African nation were up against.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Elementary Education, African American Teachers, Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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