Bibliography: African Americans (page 1188 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Yasmin B. Kafai, Jackie Collins Robinson, Molly Nance, Lavada M. Walden, Rebecca C. Fauth, Linda C. Morice, Candice Austin, Rachelle Winkle-Wagner, John Maloney, and Lunetta M. Williams.

Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle (2008). Not Feminist but Strong: Black Women's Reflections of Race and Gender in College, Negro Educational Review. Black undergraduate college women's construction of feminism and the intersection of race and gender categories at a predominantly White public college in the Midwestern United States were explored as part of a larger ethnographic study about women's college experiences and identity. This study examines 30 women's implicit notions of identity as they relate to gender and race. Study participants interacted during focus group discussions and described their notions of appropriate womanhood as silent, passive, motherly, and religious. Although these women encouraged strength and assertiveness for members of their group as a more empowering notion of womanhood, they also acknowledged that women who displayed these empowering characteristics found them to be a liability on this college campus.   [More]  Descriptors: Public Colleges, Females, Focus Groups, Ethnography

Quillian, Lincoln (2008). Does Unconscious Racism Exist?, Social Psychology Quarterly. This essay argues for the existence of a form of unconscious racism. Research on implicit prejudice provides good evidence that most persons have deeply held negative associations with minority groups that can lead to subtle discrimination without conscious awareness. The evidence for implicit attitudes is briefly reviewed. Criticisms of the implicit prejudice literature raised by Arkes and Tetlock (2004) are discussed, but found to be inconsistent with several findings of prejudice research.   [More]  Descriptors: Minority Groups, Racial Bias, Social Bias, Negative Attitudes

Walden, Lavada M.; Kritsonis, William Allan (2008). The Impact of the Correlation between the No Child Left Behind Act's High Stakes Testing and the High Drop-Out Rates of Minority Students, Online Submission. The author looks at critical dialogue surrounding the causes for the alarming high numbers of high school dropouts in states that use high stakes standardized testing mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, and investigates the perceived correlations between high stakes testing and high numbers of high school dropouts of minority students.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Dropouts, Testing, Standardized Tests

Williams, Lunetta M. (2008). Book Selections of Economically Disadvantaged Black Elementary Students, Journal of Educational Research. The author identified books most often selected among a sample of economically disadvantaged Black 8- to 12-year-old participants (N = 293) and investigated reasons participants offered for choosing specific books. Participants self-selected books at a book fair providing 412 books. The most commonly selected books supplied descriptive data. Participants most frequently chose fiction and series books and books reflective of the media and mass marketing. Girls selected nonfiction books more often than boys. In addition to the descriptive data, the author used participants' spontaneous talk and interview responses to formulate a grounded theory regarding why participants selected certain books. The author discusses the theory that everyday culture overarched participants' books selection descriptions and sources of familiarity.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Elementary School Students, Economically Disadvantaged, Books

Nance, Molly (2008). Writing Their Own History, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. From November 6, 1968, to March 21, 1969, the Black Student Union and the Third World Liberation Front led a strike to demand San Francisco State College–now called San Francisco State University (SFSU)–admit and enroll more students of color, hire more minority faculty, and create a School of Ethnic Studies. The strike made an enormous impact on the higher education system in the United States and resulted in SFSU's becoming the first and only university to establish a School of Ethnic Studies, now called the College of Ethnic Studies. This month, SFSU is recognizing student and faculty struggles and successes during a 40th anniversary commemorative celebration of the student-led strike of 1968. This four-day conference and cultural festival includes a range of panel discussions, media workshops, art displays, and other activities. Current students, faculty and administrators, as well as those who participated in the strike, will be present. Ed Jr. M. Arimboanga, a senior at SFSU, says this time of celebration is "bittersweet." While there has been progress in underrepresented communities, minority struggles seem to have become more complex. Issues ranging from inequitable tracking in public schools to pipelining youth straight into prison are just a couple of examples of how the movement has become more complex rather than progressive.   [More]  Descriptors: Strikes, African American Students, Ethnic Studies, State Colleges

Staples, Jeanine M. (2008). "Hustle & Flow": A Critical Student and Teacher-Generated Framework for Re-Authoring a Representation of Black Masculinity, Educational Action Research. This article describes the formation and enactment of a student and teacher-generated framework for re-authoring a troubling representation of Black masculinity in a popular culture narrative. This data-driven framework highlights the ways students and teacher provided a means for literacies to serve students' desire to re-author images and words they found problematic in the texts they are most drawn to, in addition to fostering methods of critical consciousness, and empowerment. This work provides important recommendations for bridging the divide between in- and out-of-school literacy teaching/learning contexts in several ways. First, it presents research on literacies, multimodalities, and youth to promote reflective practice and professional development in this area. Second, it explains the context for this work and bridges research on literacy with literacy practice in an after-school program. Third, it explains a co-constructed framework for engaging a problematic representation of Black masculinity in a popular culture narrative. Lastly, it presents a discussion of the importance of using popular culture narratives in literacy work, particularly with marginalized youth, both in and outside of schools. This framework provides an account of the ways so-called disengaged students co-devised opportunities to use literacy practices to centralize themselves through the social function of re-authorship.   [More]  Descriptors: Popular Culture, After School Programs, Reflective Teaching, Masculinity

Smith, Michael J. (2008). College Choice Process of First Generation Black Female Students: Encouraged to What End?, Negro Educational Review. Access to higher education in America is increasingly becoming a privilege for upper-class youth. On the other hand, youth in lower socioeconomic groups have less access and are increasingly marginalized and less able to compete in the college choice arena. While parental involvement is one way to fight against this unfortunate trend, parents of low-income Black students are often ill equipped to explore college choice and thereby achieve the goal of providing a college education for their children. This qualitative study describes how three Black single female parents experienced involvement from their own parents during their Kindergarten through 12th grade school years. Study findings suggest that low socioeconomic status (SES) Black parents are very involved in their children's education albeit towards outcomes other than college. Strategies for collaboration between college and Kindergarten through 12th grade personnel to increase access to college for lower socioeconomic Black students are offered.   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Mothers, College Choice, Females

Singleton, Gwendolyn James; Robertson, Jermaine; Robinson, Jackie Collins; Austin, Candice; Edochie, Valencia (2008). Perceived Racism and Coping: Joint Predictors of Blood Pressure in Black Americans, Negro Educational Review. Black Americans suffer disproportionate incidences of severe complications associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Psychosocial factors and subsequent coping responses have been implicated in the etiology of disease. Perceived racism has been identified as a source of stress for Blacks and is related to anger, hostility, paranoia, and greater blood pressure reactivity. The impact of coping responses to perceived racism on blood pressure levels in 52 Black adults was examined in this study. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure, self-reported perceived racism, and coping responses to racism measures were assessed. Regression analyses indicated that (a) passive coping (i.e., avoidance) predicted higher blood pressure levels and (b) active coping (i.e., trying to change things) predicted lower blood pressure levels. Additionally, blood pressure levels were significantly higher in those reporting greater exposure to racism.   [More]  Descriptors: Coping, Etiology, Hypertension, Heart Disorders

Drake, Ingrid (2008). Classroom Simulations: Proceed with Caution, Teaching Tolerance. When Maya Saakvitne's parents sent her for a three-day school field trip two years ago at Nature's Classroom, a camp in western Massachusetts, they did not expect her to come home with a tale of her feet falling asleep after counselors asked her to kneel in the hold of a make-believe slave ship and keep her head down even though some of the other 5th-grade classmates from Jefferson Street Elementary School were crying. Nor that the same class later would sneak through the woods at night in a simulation of an escape along the Underground Railroad. When Maya's parents asked the Nature's Classroom staff to explain, they did not like the response. Representatives of the Charlton, Massachusetts-based nonprofit, which for 32 years has run experiential learning camps for school groups along the East Coast, said the simulations had good intentions. According to the curriculum for the Underground Railroad activity, the goal is "to encourage students to think and act in ways that Africans trying to escape slavery thought and acted," and to "create a physically and emotionally safe, yet challenging experience." The clash between Nature's Classroom and Maya's parents represents a vigorous national debate about the use of simulations–the recreating of historical and fictional events–as anti-bias teaching tools. Some educators claim simulations have unparalleled power in sensitizing young people to oppression. But others, including prominent diversity education groups, say it is time to stop. Simulations, they say, are both dangerous and unnecessary.   [More]  Descriptors: Field Trips, Experiential Learning, Slavery, Simulation

Obeng, Cecilia S. (2008). Dental Care Issues for African Immigrant Families of Preschoolers, Early Childhood Research & Practice. This article examines dental health issues for African immigrant families of preschoolers living in the United States. The study was done within the framework of narrative inquiry and ethnographic impressionism. Through personal interviews and questionnaire completion, 125 parents of children ages 3 to 5 answered questions about ways in which their cultures influenced their decisions concerning taking their preschool children to dentists for professional dental checkups and how often their children saw dentists. Results of the study showed low patronage by the immigrants at dental clinics. In particular, some of the preschoolers were denied professional dental health care (by their parents) because of the parents' beliefs about dental health (such as there being no need for children to see a dentist because the children's baby teeth would be replaced by permanent adult teeth). The article recommends the education of immigrant families on the need to seek professional assistance with dental health.   [More]  Descriptors: Dental Health, Preschool Children, Immigrants, Clinics

Tetlock, Philip E.; Mitchell, Gregory (2008). Calibrating Prejudice in Milliseconds, Social Psychology Quarterly. Psychological social psychologists have devoted great effort to measuring the elusive construct of unconscious prejudice. However, recent work underscores both the psychometric flaws of these measures and the weaknesses in claims that they predict behavior in realistic organizational settings. Before accepting unconscious prejudice as an inevitable source of individual-level disparate treatment and endorsing structural solutions such as quotas, sociological social psychologists need to explore the relative efficacy of institutional norms and accountability systems widely used for checking both conscious and unconscious forms of individual-level bias.   [More]  Descriptors: Psychologists, Psychometrics, Accountability, Social Bias

Maloney, John; Peppler, Kylie; Kafai, Yasmin B.; Resnick, Mitchel; Rusk, Natalie (2008). Programming by Choice: Urban Youth Learning Programming with Scratch, Online Submission. This paper describes Scratch, a visual, block-based programming language designed to facilitate media manipulation for novice programmers. We report on the Scratch programming experiences of urban youth ages 8-18 at a Computer Clubhouse–an after school center–over an 18-month period. Our analyses of 536 Scratch projects collected during this time documents the learning of key programming concepts even in the absence of instructional interventions or experienced mentors. We discuss the motivations of urban youth who choose to program in Scratch rather than using one of the many other software packages available to them and the implications for introducing programming at after school settings in under served communities.   [More]  Descriptors: Programming Languages, Programming, Urban Youth, Children

Hunt, John W.; Morice, Linda C. (2008). Caught in the Crossfire: Factors Influencing the Closing of Missouri's Black Schools, 1865-1905, American Educational History Journal. This essay explores factors creating Missouri's minimum attendance laws for black students from the end of the Civil War to the enactment of compulsory education in the state in 1905. It argues that, although blacks made notable efforts at educational advancement, they were caught in a crossfire of opposing forces stemming from wartime animosities, political differences, and controversy over the new industrial economy. These forces–plus whites' belief in black inferiority–produced a flawed educational system that endured for black Missourians nearly one hundred years after its creation. The essay highlights developments influencing minimum attendance laws as well as their impact on three areas with sparse black populations–Polk County on the Ozark Plateau in southwest Missouri, Grundy County on the prairie in Missouri's north central region, and St. Louis County near the confluence of the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers in the east central part of the state.   [More]  Descriptors: United States History, Compulsory Education, War, Counties

Cohen, Carl (2008). Bad Arguments Defending Racial Preference, Academic Questions. Professor Cohen describes the arduous path to the passage of Proposition 2 in Michigan in 2006. In considering the reasons for its victory, he shows how claims (sometimes well-intended) "for" preferences rest on truly bad arguments.   [More]  Descriptors: State Legislation, Court Litigation, Selective Admission, Affirmative Action

Fauth, Rebecca C.; Leventhal, Tama; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne (2008). Seven Years Later: Effects of a Neighborhood Mobility Program on Poor Black and Latino Adults' Well-Being, Journal of Health and Social Behavior. This study explored program effects on adults' well-being seven years following the implementation of a court-ordered neighborhood mobility program. Low-income black and Latino adults residing in poor, segregated neighborhoods in Yonkers, New York were randomly selected to relocate to publicly funded town-houses in middle-class neighborhoods within the city. Adults who moved (n = 141) and demographically similar adults who were not selected to move (n = 106) were interviewed. Data indicate that 85 percent of adults who moved to the new housing remained there at follow-up. Results revealed that adults who moved resided in neighborhoods with higher collective efficacy and less disorder and danger, but had fewer neighborhood social ties than adults who stayed in poor neighborhoods. Movers were also more likely to work and less likely to receive welfare than nonmovers. Adults who remained in low-poverty neighborhoods at the time of the follow-up reported better physical health than adults residing in poor neighborhoods, but mental health did not vary by neighborhood.   [More]  Descriptors: Neighborhoods, Violence, Economically Disadvantaged, Physical Health

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