Bibliography: African Americans (page 1187 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include H. Richard Milner, Gilman W. Whiting, Juanita Johnson-Bailey, Thomas S. Valentine, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, Mervyn J. Wighting, Bruce Fuller, Donna Y. Ford, Judson Laughter, and Luis Huerta.

Nealy, Michelle J. (2008). Black Men: Left Out and Locked Up, Diverse: Issues in Higher Education. There are estimated 1.5 million Black men in prison and another 3.5 million on probation. Black males make up more than 70 percent of the total prison population, even though they make up only 6 percent of the U.S. Population. The alarming incarceration rates of Black men is not a new phenomenon, but one that has reverberated in news headlines and scholarly reports for a decade. Impoverished living conditions coupled with the failures of public education in urban school districts, unemployment and a criminal justice system primed to incarcerate Black men have created a crippling symbiosis for thousands of Black men who find themselves locked up in America's jails and prisons. This article examines the common thread among Black male prisoners and the impact of incarceration of Black men on communities.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Areas, Urban Schools, Educational Quality, Disadvantaged Schools

Tuitt, Franklin (2008). Removing the Threat in the Air: Teacher Transparency and the Creation of Identity-Safe Graduate Classrooms, Journal on Excellence in College Teaching. Through a qualitative investigation, the author examined the experiences of 12 Black graduate students to understand better the impact of stereotype threat (Steele, 1997a , 1999) and performance anxieties (Osborne, 2001) on their education in a traditionally white institution (TWI). The results of this study illustrate how some students enter the classroom anticipating that race–their own and their professors'–matters as it relates to their success in graduate school. Specifically, the results provide an understanding of the potential range of race-related perceptions that can hinder Black graduate students' participation in TWIs. The author concludes with an examination of the pedagogical practices that professors can employ to remove the stereotype "threat in the air."   [More]  Descriptors: Graduate Students, Stereotypes, Educational Environment, Classroom Environment

Hines, Mack T., III (2008). The Interactive Effects of Race and and Teacher Self Efficacy on the Achievement Gap in School, International Electronic Journal for Leadership in Learning. This article investigated the interactive effects of race and teacher self efficacy on the achievement gap in math scores for one middle school. A modified teacher self efficacy scale was used to measure the teaching self efficacy of the students' teachers. Two Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) procedures showed a main effect for the teacher self efficacy on the students' scores on each benchmark test. Statistically significant interactive effects were found for student ethnicity and teacher self efficacy. The findings showed that students with highly efficacious teachers earned higher test scores than did students with teachers of a low self efficacy. These findings have serious implications for addressing self efficacy's role in bridging the achievement gap in schools.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Gap, Self Efficacy, Statistical Analysis, Teacher Effectiveness

Waymer, Damion (2008). A Man: An Autoethnographic Analysis of Black Male Identity Negotiation, Qualitative Inquiry. "A Man" is an original text created by the author that deals with the struggles that Black men experience when confronted by White privilege. By using autoethnographic analysis, the author critiques the language, ironies, tensions, emotions, and opportunities expressed within "A Man," then extends findings to confront the issues that Black men encounter in the way that they view and negotiate their identities. In general, findings of shared struggles among Black men provide possible interventions for legitimizing and representing Black men's lived experiences.   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Males, Racial Identification, Racial Factors

Bodine, Edward; Fuller, Bruce; Gonzalez, Maria-Fernanda; Huerta, Luis; Naughton, Sandra; Park, Sandra; Teh, Laik Woon (2008). Disparities in Charter School Resources–The Influence of State Policy and Community, Journal of Education Policy. Recent findings show that students attending charter schools in the United States achieve at comparable or lower levels to those enrolled in regular public schools, perhaps due to uneven quality and disparities in the levels of resources acquired by charter schools. But little is known as to what state and local factors contribute to disparate levels of resources in the charter school sector. This article examines how local context, the charter school's organizational form, and state policies may influence material and human resources obtained by charter schools and their capacity to innovate. We find marked differences among charter schools situated in different US states in terms of teacher qualities, student-staff ratios, length of the school day, and the propensity to unionize, drawing on data from the US Schools and Staffing Survey for the 1999/2000 school year. Charter schools rely less on uncredentialed teachers in states that more tightly regulate the sector, and state spending is associated with more equal teacher salaries among charter schools within states. But the lion's share of variance in charter school resources is attributable to highly variable local contexts, not to state-level factors, especially the kinds of students served and the school's organizational form. Charter schools serving predominately black students rely on less experienced teachers who are more likely to be uncredentialed; their teachers also report more demanding working conditions and lower levels of efficacy, compared with charter teachers working in white schools. Conversion charter schools pay staff over $5100 more annually and rely much less on uncredentialed and part-time teachers than do start-up schools. We examine implications for the reproduction of unequal student achievement within the charter school sector.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Salaries, Charter Schools, Resource Allocation, Human Resources

Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Valentine, Thomas S.; Cervero, Ronald M.; Bowles, Tuere A. (2008). Lean on Me: The Support Experiences of Black Graduate Students, Journal of Negro Education. The support experiences of Black graduate students who graduated from a major southern research university between 1962 to 2003 were examined in a comprehensive survey that explored three areas: (a) relationships with faculty, (b) students, and (c) the institution. Characteristics that distinguish this study from others include the large sample of 586 participants across a four-decade period and the combination of closed and open-ended questions. The Black graduate students' primary sources of support were Black professors and other Black graduate students. The students collectively told stories of isolation, exclusion, and survival. Overall, the study revealed that Black graduate students believed that their support experiences were significantly different from those of White graduate students and that White graduate students experienced a much friendlier campus and a more positive classroom environment.   [More]  Descriptors: Research Universities, African American Students, Graduate Students, Student College Relationship

Milner, H. Richard; Tenore, F. Blake; Laughter, Judson (2008). What Can Teacher Education Programs Do to Prepare Teachers to Teach High-Achieving Culturally Diverse Male Students?, Gifted Child Today. In this article, the authors discuss what teacher education programs can do to prepare teachers to teach high-achieving culturally diverse male students. They suggest that special attention needs to be directed at the educational experiences of high-achieving Black male students. They also believe that diverse male learners, and especially high achievers, are often left out of policies and practices in teacher education programs that ultimately could contribute to what Ford (1996) called these students' underachievement. Their suggestions for teacher education programs are grounded in their research, understanding, and conceptualizations of high-achieving students (e.g., Milner, 2002), culturally diverse male high achievers (Milner & Ford, 2007; Tenore & Milner, 2006), practicing and preservice teachers, as well as teacher education (Ford & Milner, 2005).   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Preservice Teacher Education, Preservice Teachers, Teacher Education Programs, Educational Experience

Scherff, Lisa (2008). Global Is Not Gulf Shores: The Particular Challenge of "Place" in Teacher Education, Teacher Education and Practice. When asked to address the challenges faced by teacher education in an increasingly global society, the author answers only from her place-based perspective: she teaches in a Southern, conservative, primarily rural state where Whites outnumber Blacks two to one and where nearly 20% of the population falls below the poverty line. Although there are countless issues in the increasingly global society that the author could talk about–new literacies, economic disparity, and so on–in this essay, the author speaks to two chief constraints that she and many of her departmental colleagues confront. The author focuses on these two issues: (1) critical pedagogy/theory war; and (2) diversity. The author presents her thoughts that open up a more honest and open dialogue among stakeholders so that teacher educators will prepare teacher candidates in the best way possible.   [More]  Descriptors: Critical Theory, Poverty, Teacher Attitudes, Teacher Educators

Rovai, Alfred P.; Gallien, Louis B., Jr.; Wighting, Mervyn J. (2008). Graduate Student Academic Achievement and Learning Style Preferences: A Case Study Comparison of Graduate Students with Undergraduate Degrees from Predominantly White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Journal on Excellence in College Teaching. This case study examines academic achievement and learning style preferences among Black and white graduate students attending a predominantly white university. Results provide evidence that Black students at this graduate school possess a stronger generalized preference for the dependent learning style, a less significant preference for the independent learning style, and achieve lower course grades than their white peers. However, no significant differences were found in academic achievement between the Black students who had earned their undergraduate degrees from historically Black colleges and universities and the white students, notwithstanding differences in learning style preferences. Moreover, no significant differences were found in learning style preferences between the Black students who had previously graduated from predominantly white colleges and universities and the white students, despite highly significant underachievement by the Black students.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Graduate Students, Cognitive Style, Independent Study

Harper, Shaun R.; Gasman, Marybeth (2008). Consequences of Conservatism: Black Male Undergraduates and the Politics of Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Journal of Negro Education. Previous research has highlighted numerous ways in which historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) offer more supportive educational environments for Black students than do predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Notwithstanding the consistency of these findings, persistence and graduation rates remain low for undergraduates, especially men, at HBCUs. Furthermore, anecdotal reports and news stories have called attention to the conservative politics of many Black colleges. This study explores how Black male students characterize, respond to, and make sense of environmental politics at 12 HBCUs that participated in the National Black Male College Achievement Study. In addition to 2-3 hour face-to-face individual interviews with 76 undergraduates, documents from 103 HBCUs were analyzed to gather additional insights into the political press of these institutions. Conservatism was evident in the areas of sexuality and sexual orientation, student self-presentation and expression, and the subordinate status of students beneath faculty and administrators.   [More]  Descriptors: Graduation Rate, Political Attitudes, Black Colleges, Sexual Orientation

McNair, Jonda C. (2008). The Representation of Authors and Illustrators of Color in School-Based Book Clubs, Language Arts. The purpose of this study was to examine Firefly (Preschool) and Seesaw (K-1) Scholastic book club order forms for a period of one year–from September of 2004 through June of 2005–in order to determine which authors and illustrators of children's literature, particularly those of color, were routinely included and excluded. This study was undergirded by the theory of the selective tradition and the work of children's literature experts who advocate for the inclusion of books written by people of color. The results indicated that books written and illustrated by European Americans dominated both book clubs to an extreme degree while books written and illustrated by people of color were often excluded. For example, this study found that no books written or illustrated by Native American were made available for purchase during this one-year period.   [More]  Descriptors: Childrens Literature, Clubs, Authors, Minority Groups

Schnee, Emily (2008). "In the Real World No One Drops Their Standards for You": Academic Rigor in a College Worker Education Program, Equity & Excellence in Education. When they graduate I want them to feel, "I went through a real thing, not an approximation of college, but I went through college and that means something!" (Adjunct Instructor) This article explores the complexity of providing an academically rigorous college education to adult students enrolled in a union-supported worker education program affiliated with a large urban public university. The author examines differences in student and faculty perspectives on academic rigor and considers how students' lack of academic preparation intersects with institutional constraints to impact academic standards. She examines the role of race, ethnicity, class, and gender in determining academic expectations and outcomes and explores the complex and, at times, conflicting relationship between care and academic rigor. She highlights the crucial role of institutional constraints in hindering the implementation of rigorous education for academically under-prepared students. The author argues that high academic standards are an issue of educational equity for working class students of color and are integral to the social justice mission of the worker education program.   [More]  Descriptors: Working Class, Equal Education, Academic Standards, Adult Students

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan (2008). Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms in a Longitudinal Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of adolescents. The present study sought to examine whether deficits in emotion regulation could account for disparities in internalizing symptoms between sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents. Methods: The present study utilized longitudinal data from a racially/ethnically diverse (68% non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino) community sample of 1,071 middle school students (ages 11-14). Results: Adolescents who endorsed same-sex attraction evidenced higher rates of internalizing symptoms at both time points. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexual minority adolescents exhibited greater deficits in emotion regulation (rumination and poor emotional awareness) than their heterosexual peers. Emotion regulation deficits in turn mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Conclusions: The results demonstrate the importance of considering normative psychological processes in the development of internalizing symptomatology among sexual minority adolescents, and suggest emotion regulation deficits as specific targets of prevention and intervention efforts with this population. Future studies are needed to determine whether stigma-related stressors are responsible for emotion regulation deficits among sexual minority youth.   [More]  Descriptors: Structural Equation Models, Psychopathology, Adolescents, Homosexuality

Ford, Donna Y.; Grantham, Tarek C.; Whiting, Gilman W. (2008). Another Look at the Achievement Gap: Learning from the Experiences of Gifted Black Students, Urban Education. Many studies have been conducted on the achievement gap, with most findings pointing to how school and family variables affect Black students' achievement. Another body of work focuses on how social variables (i.e., peers) impact Black students' achievement, including how accusations of "acting White" affect the performance of Black students and contribute to the achievement gap. The current descriptive and exploratory study extends this work by examining peer pressure among Black students identified as gifted (n = 166). As part of a larger study, gifted Black 5th through 12th graders were surveyed regarding their achievement-related attitudes and behaviors and perceptions of "acting White" and "acting Black." Many of the gifted Black students demonstrate an attitude-behavior discrepancy, face negative peer pressures, and attribute acting White to school achievement, intelligence, and positive school behaviors and attitudes; most attribute acting Black to negative school achievement, low intelligence, and poor behaviors and attitudes. Recommendations are provided.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Gifted, Academically Gifted, Elementary Secondary Education

Cohen, Rodney T. (2008). Alumni to the Rescue: Black College Alumni and Their Historical Impact on Alma Mater, International Journal of Educational Advancement. Throughout their history many black colleges, also referred to as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), have struggled to maintain financial footing. This paper explores the history of alumni involvement in HBCUs and highlights their importance for future success.   [More]  Descriptors: Black Colleges, Alumni, Educational History, African American Students

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