Bibliography: African Americans (page 1186 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Dorinda J. Carter, Donna Y. Ford, Mickey C. Melendez, Jeffery Sobal, James L. Moore, Kara Joyner, Malcolm H. Woodland, Julie H. Carmalt, Gilman W. Whiting, and Darius Prier.

Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery (2008). Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner, Journal of Marriage and Family. Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage greater for women than men, and greater for White women than Black women. Additional education, a more attractive personality, and better grooming increased the probability of having a physically attractive partner and offset the disadvantage of obesity for some individuals. Unexpectedly, we found women, like men, trade education for their partners' physical attractiveness. Despite evidence of attribute trade, matching with respect to physical characteristics was the dominant mate selection pattern.   [More]  Descriptors: Obesity, Individual Characteristics, Females, Interpersonal Attraction

Melendez, Mickey C. (2008). Black Football Players on a Predominantly White College Campus: Psychosocial and Emotional Realities of the Black College Athlete Experience, Journal of Black Psychology. Black student-athletes have been the focus of study regarding academic and psychosocial adjustment to college since the 1960s. Although recent literature generally reports higher graduation rates for Black student-athletes compared to their nonathlete peers, little attention has been given to their psychosocial experiences on predominantly White college campuses. The current study explored the social experiences of a small group of Black football players attending a predominantly White university in the northeastern United States. A qualitative "grounded theory" methodology was employed for data collection and analysis and a coding system was created centered on the main areas of team, campus, and city experiences. Findings revealed that the Black players felt isolated, rejected, and mistrustful of their Black and White classmates and teammates. They also felt unfairly judged by their coaches and campus community. Other team, campus, and city issues were revealed, all of which negatively influenced these players' emotional and educational experiences. Implications for recruitment, retention, and educational policy are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Grounded Theory, African American Students, Campuses, Team Sports

Hynds, Susan (2008). No Middle Ground: Taking a Stand at the Crossroads, Voices from the Middle. Declaring that "public education is at a crossroads where the future of our world could not be more precariously poised," the author addresses the challenges facing middle school teachers, such as the narrowing of curriculum due to high-stakes assessments. She argues that students should not leave middle school without the "interpretive skills" developed through the arts, opportunities to interpret literature from a personal stance, and "a hunger for routing out what's beneath and beyond the printed work, the rap lyric, the image, or the electronic text."   [More]  Descriptors: Middle Schools, Middle School Teachers, Interpretive Skills, Public Education

Gruber, Kenneth J. (2008). Social Support for Exercise and Dietary Habits among College Students, Adolescence (San Diego): an international quarterly devoted to the physiological, psychological, psychiatric, sociological, and educational aspects of the second decade of human life. An assessment inventory (the Friend/Peer Support-Health Eating Physical Activity Scale-FPS-HEPAS) was developed to measure social influence patterns of college student physical activity and food consumption habits. Principal components analysis of 50 items with two referent sets (friends and peers) produced two scales with common factors: encouragement to exercise, avoidance of high fat/salty foods, support for dieting and/or exercise to lose weight, and criticism about exercise behavior. The Friend Support scale also included a factor relating to criticism of eating foods high in fat or salt. The Peer Support scale included two subscales relating to exercising together and food intake to gain weight. Overall, females reported receiving greater support for their diet and exercise actions than did males. They reported getting more encouragement to exercise, practice good dietary habits, and watch their weight from friends and peers than did males. Gender differences in terms of composition of friends and peers also were found. Females received significantly higher levels of support for exercise, good dietary habits, weight loss, and higher criticisms about their exercise habits when their peer groups were at least half or mostly all male. By contrast, male students report their highest levels of support when their peers were mostly or all female. Descriptors: Physical Activities, Females, Eating Habits, Measures (Individuals)

Prier, Darius; Beachum, Floyd (2008). Conceptualizing a Critical Discourse around Hip-Hop Culture and Black Male Youth in Educational Scholarship and Research, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE). While much of mainstream qualitative research has focused on conventional methodology, in terms of axis of inquiry, epistemology, and approaches to ground the theory of its questions to construct knowledge, educational researchers have yet to conceptually develop an alternative praxis in our work which takes into account hip-hop culture. More specifically, research which investigates the social reality of youth, particularly Black males. The authors give an historical overview of hip-hop culture, and examine the social, political and economic context from which the art form emerged. Second, they articulate why it is important to discuss hip-hop culture as the genre relates to Black male youth. Third, they explore the moral and ethical dilemmas in the wider public about hip-hop culture. Fourth, the authors give a critical discussion on the transformative and emancipatory possibilities in scholarship and research praxis regarding Black male youth and hip-hop culture in the contemporary moment.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Influences, Cultural Influences, African Americans, Moral Values

Akom, A. A. (2008). Black Metropolis and Mental Life: Beyond the "Burden of "Acting White"" Toward a Third Wave of Critical Racial Studies, Anthropology & Education Quarterly. In this article, I reflect on Signithia Fordham and John Ogbu's classic research on the "burden of "acting White"" to develop a long overdue dialogue between Africana studies and critical white studies. It highlights the dialectical nature of Fordham and Ogbu's philosophy of race and critical race theory by locating the origins of the "burden of "acting White"" in the work of W.E.B. Du Bois, who provides some of the intellectual foundations for this work. Following the work of F. W. Twine and C. Gallagher (2008), I then survey the field of critical whiteness studies and outline an emerging third wave in this interdisciplinary field. This new wave of research utilizes the following five elements that form its basic core: (1) the centrality of race and racism and their intersectionality with other forms of oppression; (2) challenging white supremacy, patriarchy, heteronormativity, and other dominant ideologies; (3) a critical reflexivity that addresses how various formulations of whiteness are situated in relation to contemporary formulations of Black/people of color identity formation, politics, and knowledge construction; (4) innovative research methodologies including asset-based research approaches; and, finally, (5) a racial elasticity that identifies the ways in which white racial power and pigmentocracy are continually reconstituting themselves in the color-blind era and beyond (see A. A. Akom 2008c).   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Race, Research Methodology, Ideology

Carter, Dorinda J. (2008). Achievement as Resistance: The Development of a Critical Race Achievement Ideology among Black Achievers, Harvard Educational Review. In this article, Dorinda Carter examines the embodiment of a critical race achievement ideology in high-achieving black students. She conducted a yearlong qualitative investigation of the adaptive behaviors that nine high-achieving black students developed and employed to navigate the process of schooling at an upper-class, predominantly white, suburban public high school while maintaining school success and a positive racial self-definition. Based on an analysis of interview data, participant observations, and field notes, Carter argues that these students' conceptions of race and how race operates in their daily lives informs their constructions of achievement beliefs, attitudes, and self-definitions and informs their racialization and deracialization of the task of achieving at various times in the school context. Findings from this study indicate that students with strong racial and achievement identities may develop a critical race achievement ideology and enact resilient, adaptive behaviors in racially challenging contexts.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Race, Ideology, Critical Theory

Woodland, Malcolm H. (2008). Whatcha Doin' after School? A Review of the Literature on the Influence of After-School Programs on Young Black Males, Urban Education. Basic quality-of-life indicators including employment, access to health care, and involvement with the criminal justice system paint a grim picture for the lives of urban Black males; thus, it is increasingly important to identify prevention and intervention strategies that can improve outcomes for this group. After-school programs have been suggested as a promising strategy that can increase the social and academic wellness of young urban Black males. In this review of the literature, the author highlights the importance of after-school programs for this group. Effective types of after-school programs are also examined, and the core elements that drive the effectiveness of these programs are delineated.   [More]  Descriptors: Intervention, Access to Health Care, After School Programs, Justice

Hall, Camille J. (2008). The Impact of Kin and Fictive Kin Relationships on the Mental Health of Black Adult Children of Alcoholics, Health & Social Work. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how kin and fictive kinship relationships help to ameliorate or buffer responses to parental alcoholism and the breakdown in parenting. This qualitative study investigated coping responses developed by college students, who self-identified as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) who lived with an alcoholic parent or caregiver. In-depth interviews and follow-up participant checks were used. A descriptive model was developed describing conditions that affected the development of positive self-esteem, the phenomena that arose from those conditions, the context that influenced strategy development, the intervening conditions that influenced strategy development, and the consequences of those strategies. Subcategories of each component of the descriptive model are identified and illustrated by narrative data in relation to the ACOAs' psychological well-being. Implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Alcoholism, Coping, African Americans, Parent Influence

Woodland, Malcolm H. (2008). A Validity Study of Scores on the Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory Based on a Sample of Black College Males, Journal of Black Psychology. In this study, factor analyses were used to examine the structural validity of scores on the Personal and Academic Self-Concept Inventory (PASCI) in a group of 222 Black college males. Definitions of self-concept and how self-concept has been operationalized in Black populations were also reviewed. Results from this study challenged the nine-factor PASCI model reported earlier and pointed out the importance of considering cultural differences during scale development. Exploratory factor analysis procedures suggested only five factors. In this five-factor model, the Math Ability and Social Acceptance items emerged relatively intact. In addition, new Physical Self-Concept and Global Self-Concept factors were also revealed. Suggestions for considering culture during scale development and item improvement are provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Black Colleges, Construct Validity, Measures (Individuals), Cultural Differences

Rosenfeld, Michael J. (2008). Racial, Educational and Religious Endogamy in the United States: A Comparative Historical Perspective, Social Forces. This article compares marriage patterns by race, education and religion in the United States during the 20th century, using a variety of data sources. The comparative approach allows several general conclusions. First, racial endogamy has declined sharply over the 20th century, but race is still the most powerful division in the marriage market. Second, higher education has little effect on racial endogamy for blacks and whites. Third, the division between Jews and Christians is still strong, but the division between Catholics and Protestants in the marriage market has been relatively weak since the early 1900s. Fourth, educational endogamy has been relatively stable over time.   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Race, Protestants, Jews

Ford, Donna Y.; Moore, James L., III; Whiting, Gilman W.; Grantham, Tarek C. (2008). Conducting Cross-Cultural Research: Controversy, Cautions, Concerns, and Considerations, Roeper Review. In this article, the authors share concerns and considerations for researchers conducting cross-cultural research in gifted education. They contend that researchers should be mindful of the need to consider their own humanness–their beliefs, assumptions, attitudes, values, paradigms–and the limitations of their humanness when working with research participants from racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse backgrounds, especially those backgrounds that differ from their own. Furthermore, the authors assert that research is culture bound and that it is very difficult to conduct research where circumstances, demographics, and context can be ignored, minimized, negated, or in any way trivialized. Examples are presented of racially, culturally, and linguistically responsive researchers.   [More]  Descriptors: Gifted, Researchers, Intelligence Quotient, Ethnicity

Museus, Samuel D. (2008). The Model Minority and the Inferior Minority Myths: Understanding Stereotypes and Their Implications for Student Learning, About Campus. Racially themed parties serve multiple functions on college campuses. First, it represent cohesion among members of a campus subculture–usually that of predominantly white student organizations. It is possible or even probable that many black students who heard about the party in the opening vignette questioned whether they were safe at an institution where the reality of racism was so potent. Another reason that racially themed parties are so contentious is that they manifest and reinforce deeply entrenched, culturally derived and perpetuated stereotypes about racial minority groups that can have devastating implications for the experiences of minority college students. Despite the potential power that such stereotypes hold to shape individual and group experiences, however, not all educators are conscious of the ways in which those culturally derived assumptions influence the learning of students who belong to the populations that are targeted by such stereotypes. In order for educators to fully understand minority students, they must consider the ways in which cultural factors such as racial stereotypes shape their college experiences. The experiences of two racial minority undergraduates, described in this article, help highlight the implications of stereotypes and surface key concerns that educators need to address as they work to cultivate inclusive learning environments.   [More]  Descriptors: Campuses, Stereotypes, Student Organizations, Cultural Influences

Dorsey, Dana Thompson (2008). An Examination of the Legal Debate Regarding Race-Based Education Policies from 1849 to 1964, Negro Educational Review. In June 2007, the United States Supreme Court rendered its most recent decision on the constitutionality of race-based education policies. The Court decided that race-based student assignment policies implemented in two school districts to ensure racially integrated schools violated the United States Constitution. Since the implementation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the creation of affirmative action policies, the legal and political debate regarding race-based policies has been constant and explosive; there does not seem to be an end in sight. In this first decade of the 21st century, the debate is rooted in age-old legal cases and legislation. The United States' legal history helped to shape current educational policies as well as societal attitudes which consider race in the academic admissions process. This examination of federal race-based legal cases and legislation addressing the period from the mid-1800s through the implementation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 reveals the courts' role in perpetuating the notion of White privilege and legally endorsing discrimination and segregation in education for more than a hundred years. The examination also demonstrates how legal cases and legislation necessitated race-conscious affirmative action policies.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Rights, Civil Rights Legislation, Court Litigation, Affirmative Action

Lyons, Christopher J. (2008). Defending Turf: Racial Demographics and Hate Crime against Blacks and Whites, Social Forces. This study explores how racial composition, in-migration and community identity influence the distribution of antiblack and antiwhite hate crimes. Drawing on six years of Chicago Police Department reports, two decades of census data and community survey data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, the paper evaluates hypotheses derived from racial threat, macrostructural opportunity and defended community perspectives. Negative binomial models controlling for spatial dependence reveal different patterns for antiblack and antiwhite hate crimes across Chicago communities. Consistent with a defended communities model, antiblack hate crimes are most common in homogenous white communities with strong community identities undergoing recent black in-migration. In contrast, antiwhite hate crimes are most numerous in communities where blacks and white comprise near equal proportions, supporting macrostructural opportunity perspectives.   [More]  Descriptors: Neighborhoods, Crime, Police, Racial Composition

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