Bibliography: “Black Lives” (page 4 of 5)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Michael Eric Dyson, Roger Fox, Althea Smith, Robert A. Hoppe, Robin M. Williams, Deborah Haines, Cynthia Rexroat, Bob Blauner, Thomas A. Lyson, and H. Rose Adesiyan.

Bibliography: "black lives" (page 4 of 5)

Fox, Roger; Haines, Deborah (1978). Where Blacks Live: Race and Residence in Chicago in the 1970s. This report attempts to answer the question "where do blacks currently live in Chicago?" and to clarify some of the housing related needs and desires of the black community and some of the patterns and forces which shape residential choice. The maps included in the report, developed using a "windshield survey," demonstrate that long, established trends of racial segregation and isolation have continued in Chicago. Although patterns of segregation seemed to be less rigid in 1977 than in 1970, racial prejudice remains the dominant force in determining where black Chicagoans will live. Other survey findings are reported under the following headings: (1) general patterns of expansion, (2) resegregation, (3) racial mixing, (4) areas of non-expansion, (5) population trends and rates of expansion, (6) housing demand and racial transition, (7) income levels and racial transition, (8) the current black homeownership market, and (9) the return of the middle class. It seems probable that established trends will continue into the 1980s although they may be altered by further racial mixing and an increase in the suburbanization of middle income blacks. Descriptors: Black Population Trends, Blacks, Housing Discrimination, Neighborhood Integration

Blauner, Bob (1989). Black Lives, White Lives. Three Decades of Race Relations in America. This book explores the racial experience and consciousness of black and white Americans within the context of their lives over the course of 20 years. The subjects of this book, 16 blacks and 12 whites, were interviewed in 1968, again in 1978-79, and for a third time in 1986. They speak in their own words about how their lives unfolded, how their political beliefs and racial attitudes changed or remained the same, and how they assess the social transformations they have witnessed. The book includes an introduction and is divided into two parts. Part One, "1968: Surviving the Sixties," contains the following chapters: (1) "The Politics of Manhood and the Southern Black Experience"; (2) "Whites on the Front Lines of Racial Conflict"; (3) "Four Black Women and the Consciousness of the Sixties"; (4) "White Backlash: The Fear of a Black Majority and Other Nightmares"; (5) "Black Youth and the Ghetto Streets"; (6) "The Paradox of Working-Class Racism;" and (7) "Black Workers: New Options and Old Problems." Part Two, "1978-1987: Growing Older in the Seventies and Eighties," contains the following chapters: (8) "Still in the Struggle: Black Activists Ten Years Later"; (9) "White Lives and the Limits of Integration"; (10) "Black Youth: The Worsening Crisis"; (11) "Blue-Collar Men in a Tight Economy"; (12) "Men, Women, and Opportunity"; and (13) "Keeping the Spirit of the Sixties Alive." The book also contains an explanation of the methodology, notes to each of the chapters, and a bibliographic essay. Descriptors: Activism, Attitude Change, Black History, Black Power

Orfield, Gary; Monfort, Franklin (1992). Status of School Desegregation: The Next Generation. This report looks at the past two decades and the impact of the growth of Hispanic and Asian populations and how they are being affected by school segregation, desegregation, and resegregation. School segregation of Hispanics has increased dramatically during a period in which the nation's Hispanic enrollment has also soared. Segregation has also grown slowly and steadily for blacks in the inner cities that have been desegregated under policies that left the suburbs unchanged. Data demonstrate that Hispanics are now significantly more segregated than Blacks. In spite of increased segregation in some cities, statistics for blacks across the United States show that the widely expected increase of segregation during the Reagan years did not occur either on a national basis or in the South where most blacks live. Reagan administration policies had no overall effect on the integration of southern black students by 1988. Data in this report do not reflect the impact of recent and pending court decisions that may affect urban school desegregation. A modest increase in the nation's residential desegregation, driven by a large increase in Black and Hispanic suburbanization, has helped offset the resegregation caused by the continuing decline of white residents in central city school systems. Twenty years of data on the 17 states that enforced mandatory segregation until 1954 show that the school desegregation accomplishments of the 1960s and the early 1970s were neither fragile nor transient. Different forms of desegregation plans have different effects on the level and persistence of desegregation and on the ability of a school district to retain white enrollment. Data in this report show that county-wide desegregation plans that include both city and suburbs are more effective on both fronts. There is no evidence that the problem of school segregation will go away, however, and a new definition of segregation will probably be needed as racial composition and suburban desegregation change. An appendix presents trends in school segregation and a chart of extreme segregation. (Contains 21 tables.) [More] Descriptors: Asian Americans, Black Students, Desegregation Effects, Disadvantaged Youth

Lyson, Thomas A. (1990). Down and Out in Rural America: The Status of Blacks and Hispanics in the 1980s. Blacks and Hispanics in rural America face opportunities and life circumstances distinctively different from their urban counterparts. Not only are rural conditions generally worse than urban areas in job opportunity, social services, and human capital, but the problem of inequity is also more severe within rural areas than within urban areas. Most rural Blacks live in the South, with over half of these in the South Atlantic states. Most rural Hispanics are Mexican-American and live in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Texas. The Index of Dissimilarity, used to measure the degree of segregation in occupational distributions, indicates that the greatest occupational discrepancy is between rural Whites and rural Blacks. Wider cross-racial discrepancy in educational attainment also exists in rural areas. Although more rural minorities succeeded in completing elementary school and high school by the end of the 1980s, they did not experience similar improvements in postsecondary attendance and college completion. In rural areas, there are fewer Whites than Blacks or Hispanics with less than eight years of schooling and many more Whites than Blacks or Hispanics with college degrees. As a result, the gap between Whites and other groups persists in rural areas. The problem is most acute in poor regions of the nation, where local funds for schooling are more limited. The improvement of human capital in rural areas is crucial in dealing with global economic competition. Education must focus on traits and characteristics compatible with work in small scale, diverse and flexibly specialized businesses and enterprises. Examples of such firms would be those offering specialty food products, custom-tailored clothing, handcrafted furniture, professional business services, computer software design, and specialty apparel. Such entrepreneurial enterprises would benefit all rural workers, and they need to be supported by state and local governments through development of infrastructure and policy initiatives. This report includes 7 data tables and 14 references. Descriptors: Blacks, Educational Attainment, Geographic Distribution, Hispanic Americans

Jaynes, Gerald David, Ed.; Williams, Robin M., Jr., Ed. (1989). A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. This report describes and analyzes the status of blacks in American society since the eve of World War II. It concludes that the current state of black-white relations is the result of the negative attitudes that whites hold towards blacks and the disadvantaged conditions under which many blacks live. The following summary findings are reported: (1) the well-being of both blacks and whites has advanced over the past 50 years by all aggregate statistical measures; (2) blacks remain substantially behind whites by almost all the same indicators; (3) the economic status of blacks relative to whites has deteriorated since the early 1970s; (4) the political, educational, health, and cultural status of blacks showed gains from the 1940s through the 1960s and some indicators continued to improve after the early 1970s; (5) some blacks have increased their socioeconomic status but a large minority remain disadvantaged; (6) political and social activism led to sweeping changes in the legal status of blacks; (7) resistance to social change in race relations continues; and (8) broad economic changes have significantly affected opportunities for all Americans. Policy recommendations are suggested in the following areas: (1) provision of education, health care, and other services; (2) facilitation of economic growth and full employment; (3) reduction of discrimination and involuntary segregation; and (4) development and reform of welfare programs. Statistical data are included on 70 tables and 50 graphs. Each of the 10 chapters includes a list of references. The following material is appended: (1) notes on methodology, definitions, and suggestions for further research; (2) biographical sketches of the members of the research group; and (3) a list of the committee's activities in compiling the report. Descriptors: Blacks, Civil Rights, Public Policy, Quality of Life

Jaynes, Gerald David; Williams, Robin M., Jr. (1989). A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Summary and Conclusions. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of a major study of the status of blacks in American society since the eve of World War II. The study concludes that the current state of black-white relations is the result of the negative attitudes that whites hold towards blacks and the disadvantaged conditions under which many blacks live. The following summary findings are reported: (1) the well-being of both blacks and whites has advanced greatly over the past 50 years by all aggregate statistical measures; (2) blacks remain substantially behind whites by almost all the same indicators; (3) the economic status of blacks relative to whites has deteriorated since the early 1970s; (4) the political, educational, health, and cultural status of blacks showed important gains from the 1940s through the 1960s and some important indicators continued to improve after the early 1970s; (5) some groups of blacks have increased their socioeconomic status but a substantial minority remain disadvantaged; (6) political and social activism by both blacks and whites led to changes in government policies that made sweeping changes in the legal status of blacks; (7) resistance to social change in race relations in American society continues; and (8) broad changes in overall economic conditions have significantly affected social and economic opportunities for all Americans. Policy recommendations are suggested in the following areas: (1) provision of education, health care, and other services; (2) facilitation of economic growth and full employment; (3) reduction of discrimination and involuntary segregation; and (4) development and reform of welfare programs to avoid long-term poverty. Statistical data are included on 20 graphs. Descriptors: Blacks, Civil Rights, Public Policy, Quality of Life

Rexroat, Cynthia (1990). The Declining Economic Status of Black Children: Examining the Change. Summary of Findings. This document summarizes a study that found a decline in the economic well-being of black children and families over the period from 1960 to 1985. Census figures were analyzed by region and for 45 metropolitan areas. The following key findings are reported: (1) the increase in the number of female-headed households is only one of several factors that have caused the increase in poverty among black children; (2) black families of every type suffered a decline in economic status; (3) young families are most likely to be poor because of a drop in employment and earnings for workers in their 20s; (4) children born to young never-married mothers who live in economically depressed areas and receive public assistance are most at risk of long-term poverty; (5) black children who live in the North are more likely to be poor in 1984 than in 1969, and their families are more likely to be categorized as the "dependent poor," deriving most of their income from public assistance; and (6) the economic status of black children who live in the South improved slightly between 1969 and 1984, and when their families are below the poverty line, they are more likely to be categorized as "working poor" rather than "dependent poor." The implications of the findings for the Family Support Act (FSA) are discussed. Areas for further research are suggested. Statistical data are presented in four graphs. Descriptors: Black Family, Black Youth, Census Figures, Child Welfare

Smith, Althea; Stewart, Abigail J. (1983). Approaches to Studying Racism and Sexism in Black Women's Lives, Journal of Social Issues. Explores limits of existing knowledge and research on the joint and separate effects of racism and sexism. Proposes an "interactive" approach to studying the two problems that, in defining the complex meanings of racism and sexism, capitalizes on the experiences of Black women and all other gender-race groups. Descriptors: Blacks, Females, Racial Bias, Racial Discrimination

Bray, Rosemary L. (1998). A Young Black Woman Lives Her Dream at Yale University, Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Tells the story of a young black woman's difficulties with the college admissions process and her joy in acceptance to Yale. Chronicles her difficulties in adapting to life at Yale, the second chance given her by a sympathetic dean, and her eventual success. Descriptors: Black Students, College Students, Educational Attainment, Educational Experience

Moses, Yolanda T. (1982). Socialization and Non-Traditional Gender Roles: The Black Woman. Draft. This paper explores socioeconomic and cultural conditions that predispose black women to choose paths to non-traditional gender roles and life choices more often than white women. Acknowledged is a need for scholars and researchers to look at the lives of black women, not from the dominant, white, male-centered scholarship model but from the social and cultural perspective of black women's lives and environments. Part I reviews selected socialization literature on blacks and raises questions about the validity of using one single body of scholarship to explain the diversity of black socialization patterns. Part II explores the direct relationships between socialization patterns for blacks and choice of non-traditional gender roles. Part III discusses the ambiguity that many black women face as they assume these non-traditional gender roles and gives results of a pilot study that the author is presently conducting. Part IV discusses the areas where future research on the study of socialization and non-traditional gender roles of black women might be done. [More] Descriptors: Black Family, Blacks, Females, Nontraditional Occupations

Hoppe, Robert A.; And Others (1986). Social and Economic Environment of Black Farmers. Rural Development Research Report Number 61. To study the social and economic conditions where black farmers live, 342 southern counties, each having at least 25 black farmers, were identified. The counties were divided into five categories, four of which reflected the most common commodity type of black-operated farm and one which did not exhibit any common black-operated farm type. Most black farmers, it was found, live in slowly growing counties where nonfarm employment opportunities are limited. Social and economic conditions of blacks varied considerably among the regions, but blacks always lagged behind whites. Poverty rates among blacks ranged from 56.3 percent in the Delta Crop region (parts of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi) to 36.3 percent in the Atlantic Tobacco region (parts of North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia). Unemployment among black adults ranged from 15.1 percent in the Delta Crop region to 8.9 percent in the East Texas Beef region (parts of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas). Growth in jobs between 1970 and 1980 ranged from 4.4 percent in the Delta Crop region to 29.9 percent in the East Texas Beef region. The findings suggest that many black farm families would be better off financially if they left agriculture. Most black-operated farms are very small and cannot provide enough income to adequately support a family. More policies are needed which encourage economic growth in depressed rural areas for those who decide to leave farming. More education and job training in these areas could also help. [More] Descriptors: Black Businesses, Blacks, Demography, Economic Climate

Bynum, Alvin S. (1987). Black Student/White Counselor: Developing Effective Relationships. When students are culturally or racially different from their counselors, guidance and counseling services can be weakened: a counselor's limited cultural awareness will not produce effective interpersonal relationships. Empathic understanding and a good knowledge of a client generally will provide a springboard for good relationship development when the counselor and the client are of different racial backgrounds. This book provides a historical and cultural overview of the black student's world, and illustrates how to use this knowledge to enhance relationships between white counselors and black clients. White counselors can make a difference in black students' lives by helping them develop positive self-images and by creating supportive environments. Specific strategies and techniques are outlined. A holistic approach that recognizes all aspects of students' lives, including the influence of special family ties and the impact of black culture and tradition, should be used. Understanding individual students' goals, needs, and aspirations is paramount to establishing the type of relationship that is necessary to build mutual trust and respect. Suggestions are offered for changing attitudes and behavior that evidence the racial bias that exists to some degree in all white counselors. Appendices present a bibliography, a black history/life reading list, a community resource list, and a holistic process for academic counseling. An index is included. Descriptors: Black Attitudes, Black Culture, Black Education, Black Family

Adesiyan, H. Rose (1989). Living Research: Oral History in the Black Community. Both blacks and whites arriving in Hammond, Indiana in the late 1800s and early 1900s played significant roles in its development. The role of the early black settlers has been largely untold outside the black community and is thus unappreciated. The goal of this project was to change this historical neglect. Statistical data from traditional sources provided limited information, while the use of the manuscript census forms filled out by census workers as they made their rounds and current project oral history interviews provided the internal dynamics and inner realities of black people as history-makers in Hammond. Eighty- and ninety-year-olds recalled the days when blacks could live only in one "designated" area of the city, and when single working blacks lived in a tent city provided by local merchants while saving money to claim a wife. Tales of scandal, tribulation, hard work, and entertainment were intertwined. The project became a source of pride as black residents related tales with honesty and simplicity of various firsts: the first black to buy a house, the first black high school and college graduates, the first black foreman and the first black owner of a local business. That most blacks endeavored to help improve the lives of other blacks is evident. A copy of the questionnaire used to locate possible interviewees and a 28-item bibliography are included. Descriptors: Black Achievement, Black Community, Black History, Black Studies

Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. (1993). Educational Attainments of Students Living in Poverty. Report of the Department of Education to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. Senate Document No. 13. This study of the educational attainments of students living in poverty was conducted in response to a resolution of the Virginia State Senate. Census counts of persons living below the poverty level, counts of students enrolled in free lunch programs, test scores, and two previous analyses of the achievement of Virginia students were used in the analysis. In Virginia, one of seven children aged 5 years or younger lives below the federal poverty level. Between 1979 and 1989, the number of poor two-parent families increased by 19 percent. Nearly two-thirds of poor families with children are headed by parents who work during the year, and only 1 in 10 poor children fits the stereotype of a poor child (an urban child who is black and lives with a single mother who does not work).  The following educational responses to student risk have been cited by research as being effective in promoting learning: (1) developmental preschool programs; (2) supplemental reading programs; (3) reducing class size; and (4) schoolwide projects in prevention and support. The size and scope of problems facing poor children in Virginia requires a larger societal response than current efforts. The Virginia State Department of Education is working on a comprehensive plan to serve at-risk students. Seven tables and two figures illustrate the analysis. Three appendixes contain the Senate resolution and provide further information about poverty in Virginia. [More] Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Census Figures, Disadvantaged Youth, Economically Disadvantaged

Dyson, Michael Eric (1996). Between God and Gangsta Rap: Bearing Witness to Black Culture. The essays in this collection explore black culture from the perspective of an author who went from a childhood in inner-city Detroit (Michigan) to become an ordained minister, university professor, and cultural critic. The book opens with a letter to the author's brother, in jail for murder, and examines their childhoods and the role of the author's stepfather in the brothers' upbringing. A section entitled "Testimonials: The Joys and Concerns of Black Men's Lives" provides meditations on the O. J. Simpson trial and on the lives of Gardner Taylor, Michael Jordan, Sam Cooke, Brent Staples, and Marion Barry. The second section, "Lessons: Politics of/and Identity," explores: (1) civil rights; (2) the influence of Malcolm X; (3) the role of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); (4) the contributions of Carol Moseley-Braun; (5) race and the myth of Black purity; (6) relations between Blacks and Jews; (7) the Black family; and (8) the Black Panthers. A section entitled "Songs of Celebration" presents profiles of Black Americans, especially those noted in popular culture, and several analyses of Black music and gangsta rap. The conclusion is a letter to the author's wife that traces much of his development and cultural beliefs. Descriptors: Black Culture, Black History, Blacks, Civil Rights

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