Bibliography: African Americans (page 1214 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Hedwig Lee, Ruanda Garth-McCullough, Rhona C. Free, Mark Greenberg, Jeffrey Martin, Patricia M. Wong, Jamie Mihoko Doyle, Theresa L. A. Rector, Linda R. Tropp, and Cynthia Stifter.

Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey (2007). The Influence of Self-Determination in Physical Education on Leisure-Time Physical Activity Behavior, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. Using a multitheory approach, this study was designed to investigate the influence of urban adolescents' perceived autonomy and competence in physical education on their physical activity intentions and behaviors during leisure time. A transcontextual model was hypothesized and tested. Urban adolescents (N = 653, ages 11-15 years) completed questionnaires assessing relevant psychological constructs and moderate to vigorous physical activity and then had their cardiorespiratory fitness assessed with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Based on our structural equation modeling analyses and fit indexes, the transcontextual model adequately ft the data. We concluded that the two theoretical frameworks–SDT and theory of planned behavior–can be integrated to provide an enhanced understanding of the influence of physical education on leisure-time physical activity. The results revealed that perceived autonomy and competence in physical education are interrelated and function as a whole for enhancing leisure-time physically active intentions and behavior.   [More]  Descriptors: Physical Education, Leisure Time, Structural Equation Models, Questionnaires

Free, Rhona C.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Clifford, Maryanne T. (2007). Differences by Race and Gender in Expected Starting Salaries of Bachelor Degree Recipients in Connecticut, Negro Educational Review, The. Data from the Connecticut Department of Higher Education and the National Association of Colleges and Employers were used to explore effects of college major on differences by race and gender in estimated starting salaries of 2006 bachelor degree recipients from Connecticut colleges and universities. Females' relatively high presence in majors with low average starting salaries and low presence in majors with high average starting salaries suggest that gender earnings differences will persist. Racial distributions across majors for men indicate that average starting salaries for Whites, American Indian/Alaska Natives, and Asian/Pacific Islanders will be higher than those for Blacks and Hispanics, and that racial earnings differences will persist even as educational attainment becomes more equal. For women, increasing graduation rates of non-Whites should significantly reduce racial earnings inequality as White and American Indian/Alaska Native women are predicted to have lower average starting salaries than Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific Islanders based on distributions across majors.   [More]  Descriptors: Majors (Students), Racial Differences, Gender Differences, Salaries

Garth-McCullough, Ruanda (2007). More with Less: Urban Teacher Experiences in a New Small School, Negro Educational Review, The. While reform options such as creating new schools seem tempting, they challenge the ills of public schools with new school creation under the same system. Of interest are the lessons that can be gleaned from teachers at a new small school that serves a Black American population. A theory on declining institutions was used to explore teachers' experiences and the feasibility of exit, voice, and loyalty as mechanisms of recuperation. Interview data concerning the benefits and challenges of working at a small school in a larger system illuminate the realities of changing a system from within. With an investigation of the lessons learned, the educational community was able to explore the viability of a Small School option as an effective way to provide an equitable, free education for non-White students in large urban school districts.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Schools, Small Schools, Educational Quality, African American Students

Lee, Hedwig (2007). The Effects of School Racial and Ethnic Composition on Academic Achievement during Adolescence, Journal of Negro Education. This research examines the effects of school racial and ethnic composition on students' academic achievement in the U.S. using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and hierarchical linear models. This analysis includes Hispanics, which stands apart from other research in this area that has traditionally focused on only Black and White student racial composition. In addition, peer group influences are measured by utilizing the comprehensive peer network data available for all respondents in the sample. Interactions between individual race/ethnicity and school racial/ethnic composition are also tested to better understand the possible differential effects of racial/ethnic composition for each race/ethnicity. The results show that school and peer racial/ethnic composition has important effects on individual level achievement.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethnicity, Race, Racial Composition, Academic Achievement

Plucker, Jonathan A.; Makel, Matthew C.; Rapp, Kelly E. (2007). The Impact of Charter Schools on Promoting High Levels of Mathematics Achievement, Journal of School Choice. This study compares achievement levels for high ability students attending charter schools and students in traditional public schools in Georgia. Researchers examined student achievement (as assessed by the state's Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests) using three comparison groups: students in the closest traditional schools with similar grade levels, schools with similar demographics, and comprehensive school reform schools. Hierarchical loglinear analysis was used to determine the impact of school type and student demographic variables on student achievement mobility (i.e., the degree to which students, from 2004 to 2005, moved into or out of the top 10% of each grade level on the CRT mathematics subtest). Results for the first comparison did not provide evidence of a significant relationship between school type and achievement mobility, but results for the second and third comparisons suggest that Black students generally experienced positive or neutral achievement mobility in traditional schools and negative mobility in charter schools; White students generally saw negative achievement mobility in traditional schools and neutral to positive mobility in charter schools. Implications for the study of gifted education and gifted students within charter schools are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Traditional Schools, Charter Schools, School Restructuring, Academically Gifted

Reber, Sarah J. (2007). School Desegregation and Educational Attainment for Blacks. NBER Working Paper No. 13193, National Bureau of Economic Research. The desegregation of Southern schools following the Supreme Court's 1954 Brown decision was perhaps the most important innovation in U.S. education policy in the 20th century. This paper assesses the effects of desegregation on its intended beneficiaries, black students. In Louisiana, substantial reductions in segregation between 1965 and 1970 were accompanied by large increases in per-pupil funding. This additional funding was used to "level up" school spending in integrated schools to the level previously experienced only in the white schools. The effects of desegregation on the educational experiences of black students differed substantially depending on the black share of enrollment in the district. For historical reasons, blacks in districts with higher black enrollment shares experienced larger increases in funding, compared to their counterparts in lower black enrollment share districts. On the other hand, blacks in high black enrollment share districts saw smaller increases in exposure to whites (who were higher-income). Blacks in high black enrollment share districts experienced larger improvements in educational attainment, suggesting that the increase in funding associated with desegregation was more important than the increased exposure to whites. A simple cost-benefit calculation suggests that the additional school spending was more than offset by higher earnings due to increased educational attainment. Using a different source of variation and methodology, the results of this paper are consistent with earlier work suggesting that desegregation improved educational attainment for blacks and sheds new light on the potential mechanism behind this improvement in Louisiana: increased funding for blacks' schools.   [More]  Descriptors: School Desegregation, Educational Attainment, Educational Experience, Whites

Ni, Yongmei (2007). Are Charter Schools More Racially Segregated Than Traditional Public Schools? Policy Report 30, Education Policy Center, Michigan State University. Are most charter schools more racially segregated than traditional public schools (TPS)? How do local circumstances affect the degree to which charter schools are more racially segregated or diverse than TPSs? As the charter school movement in Michigan and nationwide gains popularity, these questions have become important policy issues. In order to begin to answer these questions, this brief uses Michigan's student-level data for the 2003-2004 school year to group charter schools according to student residence and carefully compares charter schools and TPSs according to the racial diversity of the TPSs from which charter schools draw their students. Several key findings emerge from this analysis: (1)Although charter school students were more racially diverse at the state level than those in Michigan's TPSs, not all charter schools are more diverse; (2) Depending on where their students come from, charter schools had very different effects on racial segregation. Charter schools drawing students mainly from the districts in which they are located tended to be more racially segregated than their host districts, while charter schools drawing students from outside the host districts show some positive evidence toward racial integration; and (3) The effects of charter schools on racial segregation vary across districts depending upon their degree of racial segregation. While charter schools drawing students from segregated districts show no further racial segregation, charter schools drawing students from racially diverse districts are more segregated than these districts. It is concluded that if diversity in charter schools is an important goal for policymakers, the state legislature and charter school authorizers could encourage charter schools to adopt racial integration as a major goal of their recruitment process.   [More]  Descriptors: Charter Schools, Racial Segregation, School Segregation, Public Schools

Armor, David J.; Duck, Stephanie (2007). The Effect of Black Peers on Black Test Scores, Education Working Paper Archive. Recent studies have used increasingly complex methodologies to estimate the effect of peer characteristics–race, poverty, and ability–on student achievement. A paper by Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin using Texas state testing data has received particularly wide attention because it found a large negative effect of school percent black on black math achievement. This paper replicates the HKR models using state testing data from North and South Carolina and national testing data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. The replications fail to support the Texas results. In most models tested, black peer effects are small and not statistically significant, and in the few instances where effects are significant, they are much weaker than those found in Texas. Moreover, it appears that computational problems in the HKR study led to incorrect estimates for black peer effects. An appendix is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Testing, Mathematics Achievement, African American Students, Peer Influence

Wong, Patricia M.; Francisco, Grace; Keller, Shelly G. (2007). California Cultural Crossroads, Online Submission. This document is designed for readers who have an interest in developing cultural community partnerships but who may not have an in-depth understanding of the concept or process. It provides a focus for partnership and joint venture discussions within agencies, community organizations or communities at large. Seven public library community partnerships established for the purpose of creating sustainable community cultural programs are profiled in this document. Based upon the experiences of these libraries and their partners, readers of this document will be able to define the term partnership, distinguish the differences between a partnership and a joint venture, and the challenges they both present to the partnering entities. Readers will learn how to elements required for a successful partnership. The benefits to the partnering entities and to the community at large are also discussed. (Sample Memoranda of Understandings are included, as well as a comparison chart showing the differences between a partnership and a joint venture.) (Contains 12 footnotes.) [This publication was produced under the California Cultural Crossroads Support grant to the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System. The California Cultural Crossroads Program was developed through a partnership between the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System and the California State Library.]   [More]  Descriptors: Public Libraries, Community Organizations, Agency Cooperation, Sustainable Development

Shockley, Kmt G. (2007). Literatures and Definitions: Toward Understanding Africentric Education, Journal of Negro Education. This article explicates the literature on cultural reattachment Africentric education. Cultural reattachment is a process whereby people of African descent begin to adopt (in whole or in part) aspects of an African culture (e.g., Wolof or Akan). Africentric education is defined as the adoption of Africentric ideology and cultural relevancy. Proponents of cultural reattachment Africentric education advance important "cultural imperatives" for Black children and communities. Those imperatives are defined in this article. Teachers who are familiar with the cultural imperatives are armed with the necessary tools that they can use to better serve Black children.   [More]  Descriptors: African Culture, Cultural Influences, Black Studies, Afrocentrism

Tropp, Linda R. (2007). Perceived Discrimination and Interracial Contact: Predicting Interracial Closeness among Black and White Americans, Social Psychology Quarterly. This research examines whether perceptions of discrimination moderate relationships between interracial contact and feelings of interracial closeness among black and white Americans, using survey responses gathered by the National Conference for Community and Justice (2000). Results indicate that the general association between contact and interracial closeness is significantly weaker among black respondents than among white respondents. Moreover, while contact relates consistently to greater interracial closeness among white respondents, perceived discrimination moderates this relationship among black respondents, such that significant contact effects are not observed for those who perceive considerable discrimination against their racial group. At the same time, other results suggest that contact in the form of interracial friendships may help to augment black Americans' reports of interracial closeness, and diminish the role of perceived discrimination. Implications of these findings for future studies of contact between members of racial minority and majority groups are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Relations, Racial Discrimination, African Americans, Whites

Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia (2007). Neurobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to Smoking at 6 to 8 Months of Age, Infancy. Between 400,000 and 800,000 infants are born in the United States each year to women who smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy. Whereas the physical health consequences to infants of prenatal exposure to smoking are well established, the early neurobehavioral consequences are less well understood. This study investigated the neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal exposure to smoking using an epidemiologically derived sample of 454 infants who were drawn from a larger sample of 1,292 infants whose families were recruited at birth. Results indicated that, on average, infants who were exposed to higher levels of prenatal smoking exhibited less positive affect and greater irritability. Moreover, among male infants, elevated levels of prenatal exposure to smoking were associated with lower levels of approach, gross motor movement, reactivity, and attention. There was no evidence that the effects of prenatal exposure to smoking on infant neurobehavioral functioning were mediated by physical growth parameters (infant weight and head circumference) that are also known to be affected by prenatal exposure to smoking.   [More]  Descriptors: Smoking, Physical Health, Pregnancy, Infants

Rector, Theresa L. A. (2007). My Time with "The Journal of Negro Education", Journal of Negro Education. Theresa Rector spent 13 years working with Charles H. Thompson during the height of "The Journal's" contribution to educational and political achievements of the early 1950s and 1960s. Crucial to the legacy of "The Journal" was the "Brown v. Board of Education" landmark case and all the political pundits who interestingly met with Dean Thompson in the very offices where "The Journal" was housed. This article provides a historical montage of events that allow us to relive that time and place.   [More]  Descriptors: School Desegregation, African American Education, Administrators, Federal Legislation

Doyle, Jamie Mihoko; Kao, Grace (2007). Are Racial Identities of Multiracials Stable? Changing Self-Identification among Single and Multiple Race Individuals, Social Psychology Quarterly. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we estimate the determinants and direction of change in individual racial identification among multiracial and monoracial adolescents as they transition to young adulthood. We find that while many multiracials subsequently identify as monoracials, sizable numbers of monoracials also subsequently become multiracials. Native American-whites appear to have the least stable identification. We find strong support that socioeconomic status, gender, and physical appearance shape the direction of change for multiracials, and that black biracials are especially compelled to identify as monoracial blacks.   [More]  Descriptors: Race, American Indians, Racial Identification, Multiracial Persons

Mansfield, Katherine C. (2007). "Just the Way Things Were" or Malicious Intent?: One Professor's Effort to Facilitate Truth–A JRLE Student Voices Essay, Journal of Research on Leadership Education. During a class discussion, a professor placed a quote on the overhead by Lewis Terman, former Stanford professor, APA president, and vicar of IQ testing and gifted education in America. The passage stressed that Mexicans and Blacks are born morons, not capable of learning, and should be segregated from Anglos in special classes. In addition, in Terman's view, these people were dangerous because of their fertile breeding and should be sterilized. A pair of students expressed general uneasiness with the racist discourse, but most quickly dismissed the intentions of the author as malicious. The general consensus seemed to be "that's just the way things were back then" and that a very "minute percentage" of the human population is truly motivated by hatred in ideology or action. The author protested passionately by sharing past human indiscretions as well as the current trend in anti-immigration dialogue and the surge in Klan activity. The author argues that Terman approached his research and mentoring relationships with a clear socio-political agenda that included the segregation and tracking of American schools, as well as the annihilation of the "unfit" that was used to construct eugenics laws in the United States praised by Adolf Hitler in "Mein Kampf" and used for courtroom defense in "The Nuremburg Trials." It is imperative that those occupied in the praxis of leadership engage her/his students in critical thinking and provoke dialogue concerning the philosophical scaffolding of educational leadership in multiple fields and contexts.   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Discussion, Gifted, Critical Thinking

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