Bibliography: African Americans (page 1209 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Jianghua He, William J. McIlvane, Ezemenari M. Obasi, Rebecca Mongeon, Debra Viadero, Rose M. McNeese, Jeanette H. Elam, Lorri L. Pilkington, Cindi Katz, and Dylan Conger.

Elam, Jeanette H. (2009). An Examination of Single-Gender and Coeducational Classes: Their Impact on the Academic Achievement of Middle School Students Enrolled in Mathematics and Science at Selected Schools in Georgia, ProQuest LLC. The purpose of this study was to compare the academic performance of students enrolled in coeducational instruction and single-gender instruction. Within this framework, the researcher examined class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity using the sixth grade CRCT scores of selected students in the areas of mathematics and science. The fifth-grade mathematics and science scores for the same population were used to control for prior knowledge. This study examined the academic achievement of students based on class type, gender, and racial/ethnicity in relation to academic achievement. The study included the CRCT scores for mathematics and science of 6th-grade students at the middle school level who were tested during the 2007-2008 school year. Many studies conducted in the past have stressed females performed better in mathematics and science, while others have stated males performed better in the same areas. Yet, other studies have found conflicting results.   A large Australian study (1996), compared the academic performance of students at single-gender and coeducational schools. The conclusion of this study indicated that both males and females who were educated in single-gender classrooms scored significantly higher than did males and females in coeducational classes. A study conducted by Graham Able (2003) documented superior academic performance of students in single-gender schools, after controlling for socioeconomic class and other variables. Able's most significant finding was that the advantage of single-gender schooling was greater for males in terms of academic results than for females. This directly contradicted the educational myth that males performed better in classrooms if females were present.   The sample in this study consisted of CRCT scores for 304 sixth-grade students from four different middle schools. Due to the racial composition of the sample, the study only focused on black and white students. School 1 and School 2 involved single-gender instruction while Schools 3 and School 4 involved coeducational instruction. A sample of eighty students was taken from each of the middle schools with single-gender instruction and a sample of 72 students was taken from each of the middle schools with coeducational instruction. Prior to conducting the study, an extensive application was filed with the local board of education to request permission to conduct research in the county. This process involved a detail description of the sample, sampling procedures, sample size, staff members, grade levels, and background information for the study.   The major findings in this study indicated that the coeducational students outperformed the single-gender students and the white students outperformed the black students. This study confirmed that white coeducational students performed significantly higher than the black coeducational students. It was also documented through this study that there was no significant difference between the performance of the single-gender black students and the single-gender white students. In contrast to the Australian study (1996), this study indicated that the coeducational students were outperforming the single-gender students. In comparison to the 2003 study by Able, the findings of this study showed single-gender instruction was greater for females in terms of higher academic achievement than for males.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Ethnicity, Middle School Students, Females, Coeducation

Vaught, Sabina Elena (2009). The Color of Money: School Funding and the Commodification of Black Children, Urban Education. This article explores the roles of racism and Whiteness in the decentralized governance structure and practice of a weighted student formula funding policy in an urban, West Coast school district. Specifically, it examines the ways in which a racialized struggle for fiscal authority played out at one urban high school where the immense racial disparities in education and achievement were starkly highlighted. The analysis of this struggle is framed by Critical Race Theory and suggests that Whiteness operates as a form of property that maintains White racial dominance in schooling and achievement.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Education, Urban Schools, School Districts, Administrative Organization

Wilkinson, Krista M.; Rosenquist, Celia; McIlvane, William J. (2009). Exclusion Learning and Emergent Symbolic Category Formation in Individuals with Severe Language Impairments and Intellectual Disabilities, Psychological Record. We evaluated formation of simple symbolic categories from initial learning of specific dictated word-picture relations through emergence of untaught or derived relations. Participants were 10 individuals with severe intellectual and language limitations. Three experimental categories were constructed, each containing 1 spoken word (Set A), 1 photograph (Set B), and 1 visual-graphic "lexigram" (Set C). Exclusion-based learning procedures were used to teach first the 3 auditory-visual relations (A-B relations) and then the 3 visual-visual relations (B-C relations) for each category. Seven participants acquired these initial relations. The untaught relations C-B and A-C were then assessed to evaluate the emergence of symbolic categories. Participants demonstrated virtually error-free performances on C-B and A-C derived relations. The study helps to define operationally a highly useful procedural path for systematic instruction in symbolic functioning for persons with intellectual and language disabilities associated with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders.   [More]  Descriptors: Photography, Mental Retardation, Language Impairments, Severity (of Disability)

Ladner, Matthew; Lips, Dan (2009). Demography as Destiny?, Education Next. A major debate among education reformers over how best to reduce the achievement gap broke out during the 2008 presidential campaign. Most advocates on both sides backed Barack Obama, but they urged him to pursue different policies. The Education Equality Project (EEP) supported a continuation of accountability and other school-focused reforms. The coalition for A Broader, Bolder Approach to Education claimed that the greatest gains could be achieved by addressing health, housing, and other social ills. A close look at recent changes in education in the state of Florida sheds light on that debate. One finds in this southern state, a closing of the achievement gap that has eluded allegedly more progressive states. When it comes to education progress, Florida is a star performer. Moreover, its success has come in spite of a challenging student demographic profile and relatively modest resources. This article discusses how sustained emphasis on reading, accountability, and school choice have narrowed the achievement gap for Florida's minority students. Identifying what has caused the rise in Florida student performance cannot be done with perfect certainty. It might have been the accountability system, or the state's reading program, or its decision to expect more from students, or its alternative certification program, or its plethora of school choice innovations, or some combination of all of them. But the results from Florida do suggest that concerted efforts to improve the quality of an education system can pay dividends for students. It is probably not a coincidence that the one state that has outdone the others in its efforts to reform its schools has made outsize gains in student performance. Exactly which of the many reforms Florida undertook was the key to success may never be known, but the reform package offers other states–and the nation as a whole–a clear path on which they, too, can move forward.   [More]  Descriptors: Reading, Reading Programs, School Choice, Academic Achievement

Douglas, Jason A.; Katz, Cindi (2009). It's All Happening at the Zoo: Children's Environmental Learning after School, Afterschool Matters. Pairing dynamic out-of-school-time (OST) programs with zoos can encourage young people's relationships with and sense of responsibility for animals and the environment. The project presented in this article, Animal Rescuers, gave the authors the opportunity to examine how such a pairing can work. OST programs enable learning in settings that are generally unavailable during school time (Honig & McDonald, 2005). They provide space for collaboration among students, teachers, and others such as program visitors or outside educators. Taking advantage of the flexibility, location, and educational playfulness of an OST setting, the authors worked intensively with a small number of 10-12-year-old children to discover how they thought and felt about animals and to develop creative ways for them to share their knowledge and experiences with others. The children participated in zoo visits, environmental education activities, and an online space for expressing their feelings and working through their emerging ideas. Examining these activities and their effect on the children gives a better understanding of the educational role of zoos and of the kinds of OST activities that can influence children's understanding of animals, extend their knowledge of conservation issues, and foster an ethic of care for the natural environment. While the primary focus of the project was to understand children's environmental learning through a series of OST activities, the authors also looked at how zoos encourage their visitors to understand and care for animals at all scales, from the individual through the global. Despite extensive research on human-wildlife interactions, there is very little work that explores the connection of these interactions with questions of environmental and animal justice–and even less concerning their role in children's development (see Hart & Chawla, 1981; Kellert, 2002; Watts, 2000; Wolch, 2002, for some notable exceptions). Their project addressed these questions with particular attention to the ways OST programs might foster children's engagement with and attention to the natural environment.   [More]  Descriptors: Recreational Facilities, Animals, Conservation (Environment), Consciousness Raising

Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Lamp, Camilla; He, Jianghua; Deeb, Larry C. (2009). Parent Reactions to a School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Program, Journal of School Health. Background: This study assessed parent reactions to school-based body mass index (BMI) screening. Methods: After a K-8 BMI screening program, parents were sent a letter detailing their child's BMI results. Approximately 50 parents were randomly selected for interview from each of 4 child weight-classification groups (overweight, at risk of overweight, normal weight, underweight) to assess parent recall of the letter, reactions to BMI screening, and actions taken in response to the child's BMI results. Results: Most parents found the BMI screening letter easy to read and had poor recall of numerical information (eg, the child's BMI percentile) but good recall of the child's weight classification (e.g., normal weight or overweight). Most parents, and ethnic-minority parents in particular, supported school-based BMI screening. Parents of children whose weight was outside of the normal range were more likely to recall receiving the letter and talking to the child and the child's doctor about it. Parents who recalled their child as being overweight were more likely to report changing the child's diet and activity level. Most parents, and ethnic-minority parents in particular, wanted their child to participate in an after-school exercise program. An overweight condition in parents, but not children, was associated with an interest in family-based cooking and exercise classes. Conclusions: Most parents, and ethnic-minority parents in particular, viewed school-based BMI screening and after-school exercise programs favorably. Parents reported taking action in response to a BMI result outside of the normal range. Parents who were overweight themselves were particularly interested in family cooking and exercise classes.   [More]  Descriptors: Obesity, Body Composition, Exercise, Screening Tests

Hunter, Richard C. (2009). Public School Administration and "Brown v. Board of Education", Education and Urban Society. This article reviews educational initiatives of state and federal government that were designed to remedy the effects of racial segregation on Black public school students in the United States after the famous "Brown v. Board of Education" decisions. Several policy and legal initiatives are reviewed, including school desegregation, compensatory education, decentralization, school reform and restructuring, school finance litigation, state accountability models, school district takeovers, vouchers, charter schools, No Child Left Behind, and privatization.   [More]  Descriptors: Charter Schools, School Restructuring, Privatization, School Desegregation

Mongeon, Rebecca, Ed.; Tambascio, Donna, Ed. (2009). Research & Action Report. Volume 31, Number 1, Fall/Winter 2009, Wellesley Centers for Women. The "Research & Action Report," published twice a year, is a window on the activities and initiatives at the Wellesley Centers for Women. The report typically features news about the Centers, interviews with researchers, commentary on recent events or social trends affecting women and girls, announcements of new publications, and much more. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) Commentary: The Courtroom in a Diverse Society–Understanding the Need for Cultural Competence (Monica Driggers); (2) Q&A: Traumatic Stress among African Refugees in New Hampshire; (3) FairGameNews: Seeking Gender Equity on and off the Field (Laura Pappano); (4) Spotlight on Funding; (5) New Publications; (6) Short Takes; and (7) Global Connections. [Susan Lowry Rardin contributed to this issue. For Volume 31, Number 2 of "Research & Action Report", see ED511413.]   [More]  Descriptors: Sociocultural Patterns, Females, Violence, Sex Fairness

Greason, Walter (2009). Blackness and Whiteness as Historical Forces in the 20th Century United States, Multicultural Perspectives. At the core of the epistemology of black identity in the 20th century United States is the assertion that freedom is a human right, not a privilege to be earned. By the late 19th century, an ideology of racial uplift had emerged that revolved around four concepts–compassion, service, education, and a commitment to social and economic justice for all citizens, as Kevin Gaines notes in "Uplifting the Race" (1996). These elements would form the foundation for black identity and the argument for racial integration in the United States. It was the strength of these ideals that ultimately civilized a plurality of American citizens between 1955 and 1965, resulting in the landmarks of the Civil Rights Movement (the "Brown" decision, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the confrontations in Selma and Birmingham (Alabama), the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965). For the first time in American history, white Americans publicly rejected the legitimacy of white supremacy as a pillar of civilization. In this article, the author talks about blackness and whiteness as historical forces in the 20th century United States. He discusses the concept of whiteness based on the works of Tim Wise (2005) and David Roediger, who have undertaken the task to document the experience of identifying whiteness that shaped the last five centuries.   [More]  Descriptors: United States History, Race, Civil Rights, Altruism

Viadero, Debra (2009). Scholars Probe Diverse Effects of Exit Exams: State Graduation Tests Found to Hit Certain Groups Harder, Education Week. A study released last week suggesting that California's high school exit exams are affecting some student demographic groups more than others is the latest in a small spate of studies pointing to trade-offs from policies that require high school students to pass state tests to graduate. Twenty-six states have exit exams in place or will by 2012, according to the Center on Education Policy, a Washington-based group that tracks accountability policies. While proponents see the exams as a way to spur students to higher levels of achievement, critics worry that the requirements come down harder on students from poor families, minority groups, or underresourced schools. The California study, which was released April 22 by the Institute for Research on Education Policy and Practice at Stanford University, gauges the effect of the Golden State's 6-year-old graduation policy on the first three graduating classes to take the new exit exams in four of the state's largest districts. Collectively enrolling 110,000 high school students, the districts serve students in Fresno, Long Beach, San Diego, and San Francisco. Researchers found that, after 2004, when 10th graders took the exit exams for the first time, graduation rates across the four districts declined by 3.6 to 4.5 percentage points each year. During the same time period, student achievement, as measured by other state tests that the students take in 11th grade, did not significantly improve. The detrimental effects of the new policy were harder on girls in the bottom achievement quartile than on boys. Girls experienced a 19-percentage point drop in graduation rates after the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) was implemented, while the graduation rate for boys with similar academic profiles decreased by 12 percentage points over the same period. Likewise, graduation rates among the poorest-performing black, Hispanic, and Asian-American students declined by 15 to 19 percentage points following the enactment of the exit-exam policy. The comparable graduation-rate drop for white students in the same achievement quartile was 1 percentage point.   [More]  Descriptors: High Schools, Females, Graduation Rate, Graduation

Musti-Rao, Shobana; Hawkins, Renee O.; Barkley, Elizabeth A. (2009). Effects of Repeated Readings on the Oral Reading Fluency of Urban Fourth-Grade Students: Implications for Practice, Preventing School Failure. Oral reading fluency, which includes the effortless and smooth oral production of text, is an essential part of deriving meaning from text. Fluency is a particularly important skill in upper elementary school grades when students are exposed to higher level reading materials. The authors evaluated the effects of a repeated readings intervention with urban 4th-grade students who showed at-risk markers for reading failure. The authors trained the classroom teacher to implement repeated readings classwide and collected treatment fidelity data on the extent to which the teacher adhered to the procedures. Results indicated that peer-mediated repeated reading improved students' oral reading rate across baseline levels; however, by the end of the study, the students did not reach benchmark goals in reading. Integrity data suggested that the teacher was able to implement the intervention with a high degree of fidelity classwide. The authors discuss important implications for practice and directions for future research.   [More]  Descriptors: Reading Materials, Intervention, Reading Fluency, Reading Failure

Long, Mark C.; Iatarola, Patrice; Conger, Dylan (2009). Explaining Gaps in Readiness for College-Level Math: The Role of High School Courses, Education Finance and Policy. Despite increased requirements for high school graduation, almost one-third of the nation's college freshmen are unprepared for college-level math. The need for remediation is particularly high among students who are low income, Hispanic, and black. Female students are also less likely than males to be ready for college-level math. This article estimates how much of these gaps are determined by the courses that students take while in high school. Using data on students in Florida public postsecondary institutions, we find that differences among college-going students in the highest math course taken explain 28-35 percent of black, Hispanic, and poverty gaps in readiness and over three-quarters of the Asian advantage. Courses fail to explain gender gaps in readiness. Low-income, black, and Asian students also receive lower returns to math courses, suggesting differential educational quality. This analysis is valuable to policy makers and educators seeking to reduce disparities in college readiness.   [More]  Descriptors: College Mathematics, Readiness, Secondary School Mathematics, Courses

Obasi, Ezemenari M.; Leong, Frederick T. L. (2009). Psychological Distress, Acculturation, and Mental Health-Seeking Attitudes among People of African Descent in the United States: A Preliminary Investigation, Journal of Counseling Psychology. This article investigates the relationship between psychological distress, acculturation, and help-seeking attitudes among people of African descent (N = 130). Psychological distress was measured using the Global Severity Index from the Brief Symptom Inventory (L. R. Derogatis & N. Melisaratos, 1983), acculturation was measured using the Measurement of Acculturation Strategies for People of African Descent (E. M. Obasi, 2005), and help-seeking attitudes were measured using the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help scale (E. H. Fischer & J. I. Turner, 1970). Overall, as psychological distress increased, attitudes toward seeking professional psychological services became more negative. The negative relationship between psychological distress and confidence in therapist was significantly stronger for participants who expressed a cultural maintenance of traditional beliefs. Future directions for this body of research are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Health Services, Psychological Services, Help Seeking

McFadden, Ledyard (2009). Miami's "Zone" Teaches Lessons about Low-Performing Schools, Phi Delta Kappan. Miami-Dade County Public Schools invested in an intensive, three-year program to improve the learning of students in its 39 lowest-performing schools. Known as the Zone, these schools experienced mixed success, with elementary schools reducing the gap between various groups of students while middle and high schools were less successful. However, the system learned a great deal from the experience, especially the value of targeting assistance to the neediest areas as a way to influence the whole system.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Public Schools, Educational Improvement, Low Achievement

McNeese, Rose M.; Roberson, Thelma; Haines, Geoffry (2009). Motivation and Leadership: A Comparison of Motivation Factors for Pursuing a Degree in Education Administration, International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation. This manuscript presents findings from a mixed method study that sought to identify the factors that motivate graduate students to pursue a degree in the field of education administration. One hundred sixty-one graduate students from three universities located in Mississippi participated in the study. Participants completed a 10-item survey using a four-point Likert rating scale, ranked a list of motivation factors, and responded to an open-ended question to provide data for the study. Data were analyzed and disaggregated by age, gender, and race. Findings indicated that the top three reasons for pursuing a degree in education administration are (a) career advancement, (b) impact on students lives, and (c) self-efficacy–perception they can do a great job. Statistically significant differences were found between Black and White groups for two of the ten identified motivating factors–encouraged by others and seeking a pay raise.   [More]  Descriptors: Mixed Methods Research, Administrator Education, Graduate Students, Student Attitudes

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