Bibliography: African Americans (page 1204 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Natasha Warikoo, Prudence Carter, James L. Lewis, Jerry Floersch, Darlene R. Haff, Esther Peralez-Dieckmann, Rick Sperling, Derrick Kranke, Amy Sharp, and Cinzia Pica-Smith.

Orelus, Pierre W. (2009). Beyond Political Rhetoric and Discourse: What Type of Educational, Socio-Economic, and Political Change Should Educators Expect of President Barack Obama?, Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies. This article critically analyzes Obama's singular political victory. The author begins by laying out current racial, socio-economic, educational and political challenges that await President-elect Obama. He goes on to analyze Obama's political discourse and then questions whether or not Obama would be able to meet these challenges. The author acknowledges the historic significance of Obama's remarkable victory and states the victory is worth celebrating. However, he argues that Obama's victory does not necessarily guarantee fundamental educational, socio-economic, and political changes, as he is surrounded by many of the same opportunist, conservative and privileged white males who have maintained and profited from the U.S. political system for centuries. The author, therefore, invites people involved in grassroots and progressive socio-political movements to continue to mobilize, organize and use Obama's political slogan "change from the bottom up" to make him accountable for decisions that he would make in the months or years to come.   [More]  Descriptors: United States History, Political Campaigns, Success, Presidents

Henry, Wilma J. (2009). The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women, Michigan Journal of Counseling: Research, Theory, and Practice. Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and have their reports invalidated in the courts and on college campuses (Donovan, 2007; George & Martinez, 2002). In this article identity development models are used to frame the intersecting effects of race and gender on the psychosocial well-being of Black female sexual assault victims in college. Implications for counseling and student affairs practice, as well as recommendations for future research are offered.   [More]  Descriptors: Sexual Abuse, Females, Black Colleges, Whites

Kirkland, David E.; Jackson, Austin (2009). "We Real Cool": Toward a Theory of Black Masculine Literacies, Reading Research Quarterly. This article reports findings from an ethnographic study of the literacy practices of a group of 11-14 year-old Black males who defined themselves as "the cool kids." The study is framed using theories that view literacy as a social and cultural practice involving multiple sign and symbol systems. Two research questions guided the study: How did coolness relate to literacy among the young men who called themselves "the cool kids," and what symbolic patterns helped to shape these relations? The findings describe how the group's use of language and style involved issues of race, gender, and pop culture and reveal how coolness, as a pop cultural artifact of Black manhood, contributed to the literacy practices of the young men and to the construction of their symbolic selves. These findings contribute to building a theory of Black masculine literacies.   [More]  Descriptors: Language Usage, Popular Culture, Ethnography, Males

Lewis, James L.; Menzies, Holly; Najera, Edgar I.; Page, Reba N. (2009). Rethinking Trends in Minority Participation in the Sciences, Science Education. Blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and Native Americans have long been underrepresented in schools and the workplace in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Although the monitoring of representation has become a larger and more important enterprise, existing databases make it difficult to discern trends in participation at different stages of science education as well as the "magnitude" of the differences in representation across racial/ethnic groups. We reanalyze four nationally representative databases to call attention to the difficulties, and we offer a solution–a ratio of representation. Our investigation of the representation of students in the biological sciences indicates that gains in the percentages of non-Asian minorities in the biological sciences over almost two decades do not exceed their growth in the U.S. population and, furthermore, that their underrepresentation appears to increase as they move through higher education. We call for the development of multiple measures of representation in the sciences, given the complexities of representing representation and the issue's importance for science, public health, and the American polity.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Student Diversity, Biological Sciences, Minority Groups

Haff, Darlene R. (2009). Racial/Ethnic Differences in Weight Perceptions and Weight Control Behaviors among Adolescent Females, Youth & Society. Using data from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, this study examined select sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates of weight perceptions and weight control behaviors among Black, Hispanic and White females (n = 6,089). Results showed little difference across ethnic groups for perceptions of body weight with slightly over 50%, 30% and 12% describing their weight as about right, overweight, or underweight, respectively. There was striking discordance between weight perception and reported weight gain or loss among White girls. Regression analysis showed indicators of depression and feeling unsafe predictive of weight loss behaviors across all groups while GPA and forced sex were significant for Whites and Hispanics. Television watching and physical exertion were not significant. Findings suggest prevention of depression and victimization as the principal means of reducing maladaptive weight control behaviors across all ethnic groups and surveillance for inappropriate weight loss behaviors among White and Hispanic girls with higher GPAs   [More]  Descriptors: Body Weight, Grade Point Average, Females, Ethnic Groups

Kelly, Patricia J.; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth (2009). Dating Violence and Girls in the Juvenile Justice System, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a random effect model to determine a risk profile for dating violence. The strongest predictors of dating violence were (a) initial sexual experience at age 13 or earlier, (b) unwillingness of initial sexual experience, (c) drug use, and (d) low self-efficacy about preventing dating violence. The high prevalence of dating violence and associated behaviors among participants suggests the importance of implementing primary prevention programs to assist preteen girls in delaying initial sexual intercourse and in learning techniques to prevent dating violence.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, Self Efficacy, Incidence, Prevention

Williams, Rhina Fernandes (2009). Black-White Biracial Students in American Schools: A Review of the Literature, Review of Educational Research. With increasing numbers of students who identify as Black and White multiracial and with the persistence of the Black-White test score gap, the necessity for research regarding these students' educational experiences cannot be understated. To date, research in this area has been scarce. The purpose of this review is to synthesize the available literature related to the experiences of multiracial–Black-White biracial in particular–students in American schools and to identify areas in need of further research. This review offers a synthesis of the historical, social, and political context of biracial people, as well as a synthesis of issues relevant to biracial students, namely, psychological adjustment, home and parental influence, and school factors. Recommendations and implications for further research related to multiracial students and their schooling are offered.   [More]  Descriptors: Scores, Educational Experience, Multiracial Persons, African Americans

Carter, Prudence L. (2009). Equity and Empathy: Toward Racial and Educational Achievement in the Obama Era, Harvard Educational Review. Reflecting on the 2008 election, Prudence Carter challenges the popular notion that President Obama's victory is symbolic of a postracial society in the United States. Citing statistics about the opportunity gap that still exists in our nation's schools–as well as the recent Supreme Court cases that served to halt racial desegregation–Carter argues that we must continue to push for truly integrated schools, where black and Latino students are provided with the resources, high standards, and care to meet their full potential. Although she sees President Obama's victory as a symbol of national potential, Carter calls on all of us to work toward ending the "empathy gap" that exists both in and out of our nation's schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Integration, Court Litigation, Empathy, Presidents

Sperling, Rick; Vaughan, Phillip W. (2009). Measuring the Relationship between Attribution for "The Gap" and Educational Policy Attitudes: Introducing the Attributions for Scholastic Outcomes Scale-Black, Journal of Negro Education. This study provides empirical support for the Attributions for Scholastic Outcomes Scale-Black (ASO-B) as an instrument for measuring two latent traits that influence causal reasoning about the Black-White achievement gap: culture-blaming and structure-blaming. Within this conceptual framework, culture-blaming refers to the belief that Black parents cultivate an anti-academic mindset in their children and structure-blaming refers to the belief that racially biased opportunity and reward structures within the U.S. schooling system create racial differences in achievement. Results indicate that culture-blaming and structure-blaming are distinct perspectives that are statistically related to attitudes toward parent education, teaching and enforcing "proper" English, standardized testing, and resource redistribution as methods of closing the gap.   [More]  Descriptors: Standardized Tests, Academic Achievement, Parent Education, Racial Differences

Pica-Smith, Cinzia (2009). Children Speak about Interethnic and Interracial Friendships in the Classroom: Lessons for Teachers, Multicultural Education. In this article, the author discusses her research on children's perspectives of interracial and interethnic friendships in a multiethnic school and highlights children's voices on these intergroup friendships. Schools are important spaces in which social and cultural competencies necessary to the formation of intergroup friendships may be supported (Zirkel, 2008). Schools provide settings in which children learn about themselves and other children, adults, and the society in which they live. Steinitz & Solomon (1989) describe schools as "sites of identity," places where "young people draw conclusions about what sort of people they are, what society has in store for them, and what they can therefore hope for" (p. 135). In this context, teachers, staff, and administrators may act as important models and facilitators for young children as they develop intra and inter-personally. Therefore, in this article, the author also examines how the school supports or mitigates these intergroup friendships. Implications for educators are discussed.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Friendship, Children, Student Diversity, Student Attitudes

Kim, Eunyoung (2009). Navigating College Life: The Role of Peer Networks in First-Year College Adaptation Experience of Minority Immigrant Students, Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition. Many immigrants regard college education as a primary means for socioeconomic advancement and assimilation into U.S. society. However, despite their growing numbers in American higher education, little consideration has been given to how immigrant students negotiate acculturative stress, social integration, cultural values, and academic engagement to navigate toward success in college. Given that the transition to college is a critical period marked by a host of complex challenges in psychological, academic, social, and cultural adjustment, the present study examines minority immigrant students' college adaptation experiences, with particular attention to the academic domain, and explores the role of campus peer networks during the first-year college transition process. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 49 ethnic minority immigrant students from a large public midwestern university. The study participants tended to rely on peer networks of the same ethnicity rather than institutional agents when seeking assistance in adapting to the college environment. Ethnic peer network membership on campus played a positive role in helping minority immigrant students adjust academically to college and persist through the first to second year.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Integration, Academic Persistence, College Environment, Immigrants

Sharp, Amy; Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique; Boberg, Janet (2009). The Interaction between Juvenile School Fire Setting and Bullying: An Exploratory Study, School Social Work Journal. The aim of this study is to provide school social workers with an outline of the indicators common to school fire setters regarding their experiences of bullying and victimization by bullies. A sample of juvenile fire setters (N = 379) between the ages of five and seventeen years attending a fire-setter intervention program completed a modified Peer Relations Questionnaire. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are any differences regarding bully or bully victim characteristics between juvenile fire setters who set fires at school and those who set fires in other locations. Almost a third of the sample (32.7%, n = 125) indicated that they had set a fire at school and reported a higher rate of having been bullied than non-school fire setters. Implications for school social work practices are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Intervention, Bullying, School Social Workers, Social Work

Kulkarni, Shanti J. (2009). The Relational Consequences of Interpersonal Violence (IPV) for Adolescent Mothers, Youth & Society. Relationships are known to be vitally important for development, particularly in adolescence. Transcripts of semistructured interviews of 24 adolescent mothers who had experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) were analyzed to explore the effects of IPV on their important relationships. Mothers described feelings of loneliness and isolation; fears about trusting others; early and sometimes overwhelming family responsibilities; and disconnection from potential family support, as well as relationships with protective adults. These narratives captured during a critical developmental juncture reveal the influence that IPV has on young mothers' most important relationships and some of the attendant relational processes within these relationships. Findings suggest that shifting focus to the health of these relationships opens up innovative avenues for intervention with adolescent mothers.   [More]  Descriptors: Mothers, Family Relationship, Adolescents, Violence

Warikoo, Natasha; Carter, Prudence (2009). Cultural Explanations for Racial and Ethnic Stratification in Academic Achievement: A Call for a New and Improved Theory, Review of Educational Research. In this article we assess the literature on cultural explanations for ethno-racial differences in K-12 schooling and academic performance. Some cultural arguments problematically define certain ethno-racial identities and cultures as subtractive from the goal of academic mobility while defining the ethnic cultures and identities of others as additive and oriented toward this goal. We review two prevailing schools of thought that compare immigrant and native minority students: cultural-ecological theory and segmented assimilation theory. Second, we examine empirical research that highlights the complexity of culture, focusing on four domains: (a) the school's cultural environment; (b) variation in identities and cultural practices within ethnic and racial groups; (c) the multidimensional nature of culture and its variable impact on students; and (d) the intersections of race, ethnicity, class, and gender. This literature–when synthesized–suggests that a coherent theory of culture's impact on ethnic and racial differences in schooling outcomes must unpack the multiple influences of identity and context more deliberately than previous literature has done. Finally, we call for studies that employ comparative research across groups and understand race and ethnicity contextually, not as mere dummy variables, thereby equipping researchers with the tools to better explain how culture influences schooling and achievement.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethnicity, Elementary Secondary Education, Racial Differences, Cultural Context

Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry (2009). Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers, School Social Work Journal. This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to obtain narrative data about medication and illness experience. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed. Results show how students on psychiatric medications experience stigma. Stigma themes included ostracism from peers and social exclusion, lack of awareness about the meanings of mental illness, positive effects of interacting with others in a similar condition (called a positive stigma avoidance strategy), and unsympathetic teachers. Findings are used to suggest practice implications for school social workers.   [More]  Descriptors: Mental Disorders, Mental Health, Adolescents, School Social Workers

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