Bibliography: African Americans (page 1202 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Jeremy C. Vinzant, Genevieve Siegel-Hawley, Daymond Glenn, Nicole M. Bracken, Vanessa Jefferson, Ronette Briefel, Denise DeHass, Philip Gleason, Marita G. Holl, and Kenneth Y. Chay.

Bracken, Nicole M., Comp.; DeHass, Denise, Comp. (2009). Race and Gender Demographics. NCAA[R] Member Institutions' Personnel Report: The NCAA Minority Opportunities and Interests Committee's Biennial Study, 2007-08, National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1). The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) compiled this statistical information regarding the ethnicity and gender demographic information of athletics administrators and coaches in intercollegiate athletics at its member institutions. The proceeding charts, graphs and tables show the results from the 2007-08 academic year. Also included in this report for comparison are the data from 1995-96, the first year the demographic information was collected. The 1995-96 data are used as the baseline year for comparison in each race demographics report. Data for this report are divided into three categories: athletics administrators, head coaches and assistant coaches. All three groups are then organized by overall figures, percentages and then a divisional breakdown. Included within each of these categories are tables that provide data with the historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) excluded. For all overall and divisional categories, both with and without HBCUs, a specific minority breakdown for American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asians, Hispanics, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Other Minority and Two or More Races is also provided.   [More]  Descriptors: College Athletics, Race, Sex, Administrators

Jaser, Sarah S.; Holl, Marita G.; Jefferson, Vanessa; Grey, Margaret (2009). Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Urban Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Journal of School Health. Background: Rates of overweight in youth have increased at an alarming rate, particularly in minority youth, and depressive symptoms may affect the ability of youth to engage in healthy lifestyle behaviors to manage weight and reduce their risk for health problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depressive symptoms, clinical risk factors, and health behaviors and attitudes in a sample of urban youth at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: We obtained self-report questionnaire data on depressive symptoms and health attitudes and behaviors related to diet and exercise and clinical data on risk markers (eg., fasting insulin) from 198 youth from an urban setting. Seventh-grade students were eligible if they were at risk for developing T2DM because they had a body mass index (BMI) in the 85th percentile or higher and a family history of diabetes. Results: Clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms were evident in approximately 21% of the sample, and Hispanic youth reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than black youth. Higher levels of depression were associated with several health behaviors and attitudes, in particular less perceived support for physical activity and poorer self-efficacy for diet. Depressive symptoms were also related to some clinical risk markers, such as higher BMI and fasting insulin levels. Conclusions: Because depressive symptoms may affect ability to engage in healthy behavior changes, evaluation and treatment of depressive symptoms should be considered in preventive interventions for youth at risk for T2DM.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Children, Body Composition, Physical Activities, Self Efficacy

Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve (2009). Equity Overlooked: Charter Schools and Civil Rights Policy, Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles. The Civil Rights Project (CRP) is in the midst of an analysis of rapidly growing charter school enrollment, which the authors anticipate releasing next month. Similar to trends described in their 2003 report and in other research on racial isolation in charter schools, they find higher levels of segregation for black students in charter schools compared to traditional public schools. This finding is particularly striking given that the CRP has reported increasing segregation for black (and Latino) students in public schools for nearly two decades. In other words, charter school segregation levels for black students are even outpacing steadily increasing public school segregation. As new incentives for expanding charter schools continue to emerge, it is critically important for the federal government to issue and enforce new guidance on charter schools and civil rights policy. With many states pursuing the expansion of charter school programs–in the face of mounting evidence linking charters to increased levels of segregation–there should be no further delay. This paper describes the contours of state legislation relating to charter schools and racial diversity, as well as limited oversight activities to monitor compliance with these policies. The authors also highlight serious gaps in charter school enrollment data based on an on-going Civil Rights Project analysis of charter school racial, socioeconomic and linguistic segregation. They conclude with recommendations for designing charter school civil rights policy to ensure that the spread of educational choice continues to provide equal opportunities and integrated education to students from all backgrounds. Survey of State Charter School Legislation about Diversity is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Public Policy, Charter Schools, Civil Rights, State Legislation

Moore, Kristin Anderson (2009). Teen Births: Examining the Recent Increase. Research Brief. Publication #2009-08, Child Trends. After a 14-year decline, the teen birth rate increased in 2006, according to data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Between 2005 and 2006, the teen birth rate rose 3.5 percent, from 40.5 to 41.9 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19. The number of teen births rose by 20,843, from 414,593 to 435,436 births, the largest annual increase since 1989. This research brief explores whether the data reflect a short-term blip or a true reversal in the decline in the U.S. teen birth rate. It considers available evidence that might explain the apparent loss of momentum, and raises data and research gaps that must be filled to strengthen public and private prevention efforts. This brief is based on a paper that resulted from a meeting of experts and researchers convened by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy.   [More]  Descriptors: Prevention, Birth Rate, Pregnancy, Social Indicators

Kao, Linda Lee (2009). Adding It Up: Is Computer Use Associated with Higher Achievement in Public Elementary Mathematics Classrooms?, ProQuest LLC. Despite support for technology in schools, there is little evidence indicating whether using computers in public elementary mathematics classrooms is associated with improved outcomes for students. This exploratory study examined data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, investigating whether students' frequency of computer use was related to mathematics achievement for children in third (n=7,960) and fifth (n=3,828) grades and whether teachers' instructional practices moderated this relationship. Results indicated that although prior disparities in children's frequency of computer use have been reduced, using computers had no relationship to achievement for students in third grade and was marginally (p less than 0.10) associated with lower scores for students in fifth grade. Closer examination of computer use across racial/ethnic groups found that in fifth grade, using computers at least once a week was associated with lower scores among White but not Hispanic students. Teachers' instructional practices (e.g., discussing or writing about mathematics, using materials such as manipulatives and calculators, and solving routine problems) generally did not moderate the relationship between computer use and mathematics achievement when school fixed effects were controlled, though greater differences did emerge across students based on their family income and race/ethnicity. In particular, among fifth graders living below the poverty threshold and third graders who were Black, using computers once or twice a month in conjunction with writing about mathematics weekly was associated with higher scores than either practice alone. Furthermore, using computers at least once a week was associated with higher scores among third-grade students and Black fifth-grade students who did not also solve problems from textbooks and worksheets daily.   Overall, these findings suggest that policy efforts to include technology in elementary mathematics education have fallen short of their goal of improving student performance. However, it appears that using computers in conjunction with certain instructional practices may be beneficial for some children. Shifting the focus from acquiring hardware to increasing high-quality professional development may provide an initial step toward helping computer use benefit all students.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Textbooks, Family Income, Mathematics Achievement, Computer Uses in Education

Jerald, Craig D.; Haycock, Kati; Wilkins, Amy (2009). Fighting for Quality and Equality, Too: How State Policymakers Can Ensure the Drive to Improve Teacher Quality Doesn't Just Trickle down to Poor and Minority Children. K-12 Policy, Education Trust. If state leaders invest resources and energy wisely, they don't have to choose between excellence and equity. They can improve overall teacher quality and remedy the shameful inequities in access to the single most valuable resource in education–effective teachers. This paper outlines ten steps state policymakers and school district leaders can take now that hold the promise to make a difference in teacher quality and equitable access to the best teachers for low-income students and students of color. They include: (1) Producing better information on teacher effectiveness; (2) requiring clear public reports on teacher quality and equity; (3) placing information on teacher effectiveness in the hands of those who need it; (4) requiring teacher evaluations to focus on effectiveness; (5) writing explicit policies that expect equitable access to effective teachers; (6) eliminating state policies that sustain the status quo in local districts; (7) Providing incentives for effective teachers to work in high-need schools; (8) making certain that high poverty districts and schools have what they need to attract and retain effective teachers; (9) Pumping up the supply of talented teachers; and (10) Requiring districts to fix counterproductive hiring and placement practices.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Elementary Secondary Education, Minority Group Children, Educational Quality

Hubbard, Steven M.; Stage, Frances K. (2009). Attitudes, Perceptions, and Preferences of Faculty at Hispanic Serving and Predominantly Black Institutions, Journal of Higher Education. This paper describes the attitudes, perceptions, and preferences of faculty at Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSI) and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI). Using the 1999 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF-99) data set, the authors compared instructors of these minority serving institutions with instructors from similar institutions that had high enrollments of Caucasian students. Highlighting dissimilarities allows everyone to understand how campus environments and faculty culture may differ between minority serving institutions and other Predominantly White Institutions (PWI) campuses with similar academic large groups when student populations, institutional mission, and educational goals differ. In this study, the authors attempt to address that issue by grouping institutions according to missions. These factors are examined under the framework of campus environments and institutional ethos. Brown and Lane (2003) cautioned against comparing all institutions within Carnegie Classification and examining differences across campuses of different population groupings. Historically, many postsecondary institutions in the United States were established to improve society, empower its citizens, and promote democratic values. The aim to educate citizens enhanced the diversity of American higher education. Understanding campus environments and faculty attitudes toward undergraduate education helps everyone examine institutional environments and educational structures to see whether they encourage opportunity for future leaders in the society.   [More]  Descriptors: Institutional Mission, White Students, College Faculty, Teacher Attitudes

Vinzant, Jeremy C. (2009). Black Principals' Perceptions of How Their Racial, Cultural, Personal, and Professional Identities Affect Their Leadership, ProQuest LLC. This dissertation addresses the negative way that blacks are viewed in mainstream society and how that image affects black educational leaders. Race has been historically used to subordinate blacks in the United States, and research suggests that a key factor in this subordination has been the systematic withdrawal of educational opportunities and access for blacks. This research posits that such racism and discrimination has affected the way blacks have formed their identities, specifically with regard to education. In this multiple-participant case study, black principals were interviewed to determine the ways in which they perceived their racial, cultural, personal, and professional identities to affect their leadership of schools. Findings stated that race heavily affected all areas of participants' identities. Race caused participants to feel more connected to minority students and communities, to advocate high expectations for minority students especially in addition to all other students, and to integrate diversity in the faculty to be representative of all students. Race also made it more difficult for participants to earn the trust and respect of faculty and parents and to discern whether people reacted negatively to their race or to other aspects of their leadership. Suggestions from this study included the inclusion of culture and race-specific coursework in educational leadership programs, increased promotion of diversity in recruitment for educators and educational leaders, and institutionalized support groups for principals of color. Methodological limitations, theoretical considerations, and implications for future research practice, and policy were also discussed. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Social Support Groups, Race, Instructional Leadership

Malfatti-Rachell, Gabrielle (2009). Desegregation and Its Impact on Institutional Culture at a Historically Black University, ProQuest LLC. In this case study, 38 Black and White participants shared their recollections of intergroup contact during the first 15 years of desegregation (1954-1969) at a Historically Black University in a predominantly White Midwestern community. Faculty and alumnae/i candidly evoked their experiences in this unusual desegregation setting and their memories collectively provided a vivid portrayal of Lincoln University's transition from a Black university to a fully desegregated institution over the period of the study. Bracketed within the zenith of the Civil Rights Era, this study provides a rich account of the movement as it unfolded and influenced this Historically Black University. Findings of the study revealed a positive process of desegregation marked by the absence of racial hostility. A retrospective organizational analysis showed that desegregation had a profound effect on the institutional culture due mainly to the depletion of Black scholars and highly talented Black Students and a leadership crisis that engendered the rise of a powerful student government.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Student Government, Civil Rights, Black Colleges, Case Studies

Topper, Amy (2009). When Do Students Stop-Out? Data Notes. Volume 4, Number 2, March/April 2009, Achieving the Dream. Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count, this issue of "Data Notes" is the first of a two-part series investigating which academic terms have the highest frequency of stop-outs at Achieving the Dream colleges. In this issue, students who stop out during high-frequency terms are examined by enrollment status, gender, and race/ethnicity. Colleges have been divided into two groups: those operating on semesters and those on quarters/trimesters. Similar to national studies on student persistence, slightly more than half of part-time students at Achieving the Dream colleges stopped out by the fall of their second academic year. Female students were significantly less likely to stop out than male students, and Hispanic students were less likely to stop out over three years than were black, non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic; or Native American students.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Persistence, Enrollment, Community Colleges, African American Students

McCaskill-Mitchell, Sonja (2009). The Level of Persistence in High School Drop-Outs Enrolled in the GED Program at a Rural Community College, ProQuest LLC. The purpose of the study was to identify factors that affect students' persistence in completion of the GED. Exploration of characteristics of participants that do/do not persist and obtain their GED assists the high school dropout, potential GED recipient, GED program staff, and society as a whole. More information was needed in order to effectively address issues that adversely affect students enrolled in GED programs at a rural community college. Therefore, examination of the GED program's student database contributed in finding factors that both help and impede student success. Factors identified were investigated in an effort to assist in the retention of future participants in the GED program.   The subjects of this study consisted of 976 students enrolled in GED programs at a rural community college. The data utilized were archived and provided by the GED staff via charts and spreadsheets of student files and records (i.e. demographic sheet, entry tests-locator test or TABE test, pre-GED testing, exit tests-GED, etc.). There was no direct contact with subjects.   A discriminant function analysis was utilized in this study. This was done by weighting the variables and combining them into discriminant functions that separate the groups maximally. The discriminating variables were considered as predictor variables and the group membership variables were considered as dummy criterion variables. Also, a quantitative, non-experimental design was employed to show the direction and magnitude of the relationships between independent variables. The essential features of the design were the abilities to find associations, relate variables, and make predictions. The variables of age, race, gender, employment, public assistance, rural, single parent, and entry/exit levels significantly discriminated into the following groups at a 59.5% rate of accuracy: (1) GED completion, (2) GED continuation, and (3) GED dropouts. Age, race, gender, entry level, and rural had a significant impact on persistence/GED completion. Older, male, and higher entry level (4, 5, and 6) participants were more apt to persist and complete the GED program. While white and black participants completed at higher rates than Asian and Hispanic participants. The majority of rural participants also completed the GED program.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Dropouts, Predictor Variables, High School Equivalency Programs

Glenn, Daymond (2009). What Can We Do? A Critical Multicultural Response to the College Experiences of Black Males at Predominantly White Institutions, ProQuest LLC. Studies on Black males at various types of colleges have been conducted; however, there has been little research on Black males at private, predominantly White institutions of higher education in the Pacific Northwest. Given this, we know little about their status and experiences in these environments. This study focused on the experiences of eight Black male undergraduate students from four private, predominantly White institutions (PWIs) of higher education in the Pacific Northwest. This study examined the utility of a critical multicultural perspective in making recommendations for the experiences of these students.   Five overarching categories of experience were investigated in this study (Identity Development, Classroom Experiences, Multicultural Awareness, Campus Climate, and Peer Relationships). These provided the structure for in-depth interviews, data analysis, and informed the development of the recommendations.   Among the findings are the following: The students found the term "Black" to be complicated and difficult to define; social science courses seemed to increase their chances of a negative classroom experience; they understood multiculturalism generally as the study of other cultures; being one of few Black males on campus was frustrating and perplexing; and race was often a significant factor in establishing supportive friendships.   This research revealed that Black males have complex and varied experiences on campus and inside the classroom at PWIs in the Pacific Northwest. On the basis of the findings, recommendations are that colleges need to be intentional on providing spaces for cultural affirmation and cultural education, as well as provide mentoring opportunities from Black professionals who understand the experiences of Black males at PWIs. PWIs can wittingly and unwittingly bring a variety of experiences to the educational lives of Black males, which can either help them expand their intellectual paradigms and social networks, or reproduce negative stereotypes about their culture, causing them to isolate themselves socially.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Undergraduate Students, Higher Education, Stereotypes, Cultural Education

Hibel, Jacob (2009). Roots of Assimilation: Generational Status Differentials in Ethnic Minority Children's School Readiness, Journal of Early Childhood Research. This study examines the relationship between children's generational status and their cognitive and social school readiness, paying particular attention to racial/ethnic and national origin differences. This relationship is examined using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K). Results indicate that, while children of foreign-born mothers tend to have lower levels of school readiness than children of native-born mothers, this disparity is largely due to differences in family context characteristics. After controlling for an array of family background variables, non-Hispanic black, Asian, Mexican, Puerto Rican and other Hispanic children of foreign-born mothers are found to have similar levels of academic school readiness to co-ethnic children of American-born mothers. Analyses also indicate that a substantial portion of the school readiness gaps between minority children of foreign-born mothers and non-Hispanic white children of American-born mothers can be explained by family background differences. The study includes a discussion of the implications for assimilation theory and the study of early educational inequality.   [More]  Descriptors: School Readiness, Equal Education, Mothers, Family Characteristics

Gleason, Philip; Briefel, Ronette; Wilson, Ander; Dodd, Allison Hedley (2009). School Meal Program Participation and Its Association with Dietary Patterns and Childhood Obesity. Final Report, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.. We used data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment III Study to examine the dietary patterns of school meal program participants and nonparticipants and the relationship between school meal participation and children's BMI and risk of overweight or obesity. School Breakfast Program (SBP) participants consumed more low nutrient energy dense (LNED) baked goods and more calories at breakfast than non participants. National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants had lower intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and a lower percentage of calories from LNED foods and beverages than nonparticipants. Overall, NSLP participation was not significantly related to students BMI, though participants were less likely to be overweight or obese than non-participants among black students but more likely to be so among "other race" students. SBP participants had significantly lower BMI than non-participants, possibly because SBP participants are more likely to eat breakfast and eat more at breakfast, spreading calorie intake more evenly over the course of the day. A section on Dietary Patterns of School Meal Participants and Nonparticipants: Supplemental Tables is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Obesity, International Schools, Lunch Programs, Breakfast Programs

Chay, Kenneth Y.; Guryan, Jonathan; Mazumder, Bhashkar (2009). Birth Cohort and the Black-White Achievement Gap: The Roles of Access and Health Soon After Birth. WP2008-20, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. One literature documents a significant, black-white gap in average test scores, while another finds a substantial narrowing of the gap during the 1980's, and stagnation in convergence after. We use two data sources–the Long Term Trends NAEP and AFQT scores for the universe of applicants to the U.S. military between 1976 and 1991–to show: (1) the 1980's convergence is due to relative improvements across successive cohorts of blacks born between 1963 and the early 1970's and not a secular narrowing in the gap over time; and (2) the across-cohort gains were concentrated among blacks in the South. We then demonstrate that the timing and variation across states in the AFQT convergence closely tracks racial convergence in measures of health and hospital access in the years immediately following birth. We show that the AFQT convergence is highly correlated with post-neonatal mortality rates and not with neonatal mortality and low birth weight rates, and that this result cannot be explained by schooling desegregation and changes in family background. We conclude that investments in health through increased access at very early ages have large, long-term effects on achievement, and that the integration of hospitals during the 1960's affected the test performance of black teenagers in the 1980's.   [More]  Descriptors: Cohort Analysis, Achievement Gap, Racial Differences, Hospitals

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