Bibliography: African Americans (page 1201 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Westra Miller, Gilbert G. Gonzalez, Beverly Shaklee, Johnny D. Jones, R. Patrick Solomon, Patricia Jones Brainard, Anthony H. Normore, Elizabeth Higginbotham, Mark Walsh, and Kimberly Newsome.

Solomon, R. Patrick (2004). Schooling in Babylon, Babylon in School: When Racial Profiling and Zero Tolerance Converge, Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy. This study is about systemic containment of Black youth by authority structures within schools and law enforcement agents in racialized communities. Through the retrospective narratives of incarcerated Black students in a secure custody institution, vivid insights are provided into the construction of fear of Black youth and of the ways that arbitrary power and authority operate within the contested terrain of schools. Safe-schools policies of "zero tolerance" and the ongoing practice of "racial profiling" appear to converge in moving Black students through the "school-prison pipeline."   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, African American Children, Correctional Institutions, Law Enforcement

Newsome, Kimberly (2009). Factors That Influence the Decision of Black Males to Seek Membership in a Historically White Fraternity, ProQuest LLC. Since the Civil Rights Movement, American higher education institutions have experienced a demographic shift toward greater racial diversity in their campus enrollment (Jones, 1987; Rendon & Hope, 1996; Sedlecek, 1987). Today's college students include students who are of nontraditional age, from different countries and possess diverse sexual orientations and racial, ethnic, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds (Boshini & Thompson, 1998; Carter & Wilson, 1997; Chang & DeAngelo, 2002; Kuh, 1991). As Black college student enrollment continues to increase, shifts in the membership composition of college social fraternities and sororities may occur (Chang & DeAngelo, 2002). Sutton and Kimbrough (2001) concluded that Black student involvement within traditional campus organizations has increased within the last thirty years.   As discriminatory clauses were removed from fraternity policies in the 1960s, invitations for membership were extended to Black students on various campuses (Robson, 1968; Tillar, 1974). Black students found it difficult to accept membership in White fraternities due to being faced with ostracism and criticism from other Black students on campus (Tillar, 1974 & Tucker, 1983). However, Chang's 1996 study on fraternity racial integration concluded that the acceptance of students of color in White fraternities and their decision to become members are predicated on the students' view of society and their shared interests with White Greek members.   The purpose of this study was to identify and examine factors that influence the decision of Black males to seek membership in historically White fraternities. This study explored the Black male experience in White fraternities. Black college students' racial identity attitudes were found to contribute to their participation in cultural and non-cultural campus organizations (Cross, 1971, 1978). This study was guided by three theories related to identity development: Cross's Black Identity Development Model (1971, 1978), Chickering's Establishing Identity Vector (1972), and Phinney's Model of Ethnic Identity Development (1990).   In order to gain an understanding of the diverse perspectives of Black males in White fraternities, a phenomenological study using an exploratory design was utilized. Participants consisted of undergraduate Black males who are members of historically White fraternities. Purposive sampling was utilized to identify the participants for this study and open-ended, semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with participants. A systematic content analysis that involved coding was conducted on the data to identify categories and common themes that emerged.   Research findings provided insight on eleven participants who revealed factors that led to their decision to seek membership in a historically White fraternity. Many core themes and patterns emerged including most participants being raised in predominantly White neighborhoods and attending predominantly White schools prior to college. Many participants were pre-recruited by friends, roommates or other individuals with whom they came in contact. A common factor that led participants to join a White fraternity included a desire for brotherhood. Participants indicated that some of the benefits of their fraternity membership included networking and leadership opportunities. Some of the challenges participants experienced involved various forms of racial insensitivity by their fraternity brothers. Participants stated that their perceptions of their ethnic identity did play a role in their decision to seek membership in a historically White fraternity. All participants indicated that they had an overall rewarding experience as members of their respective fraternities.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Neighborhoods, College Students, Ethnicity

Normore, Anthony H., Ed. (2008). Leadership for Social Justice: Promoting Equity and Excellence through Inquiry and Reflective Practice. Educational Leadership for Social Justice, IAP – Information Age Publishing, Inc.. Within this book Leadership for Social Justice: Promoting Equity and Excellence Through Inquiry and Reflective Practice the contributors provide a variety of rich perspectives to the social justice phenomenon from the lens of empirical, historical, narrative, and conceptual designs. These designs reiterate the importance of bridging theory and practice while simultaneously producing significant research and scholarship in the field. Collectively, the authors seek to give voice to empowering, social justice-focused research–an area that continues to garner much interest in the areas of educational leadership research, teaching, and learning. In conjunction with the "theme" of this issue, the chapters offer research from an American perspective and offer suggestions, and implications for the field of educational leadership on both a national and international level. The collection contributes to research, theory and practice in educational and community settings. Contents of this book include: (1) A Repository of Hope for Social Justice: Black Women Leaders at Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Gaetane Jean-Marie and Anthony H. Normore; (2) Separate is Inherently Unequal: Rethinking Commonly Held Wisdom, Jonathan D. Lightfoot; (3) (OUT)siders at the Gates: Administrative Aspirants' Attitudes Towards the Gay Community, Autumn Tooms and Judy A. Alston; (4) "They don't speak English": Interrogating (Racist) Ideologies and Perceptions of School Personnel in a Midwestern State, Gerardo R. Lopez and Vanessa A. Vazquez; (5) From Scientific Management to Social Justice… and Back Again? Pedagogical Shifts in the Study and Practice of Educational Leadership, Jeffrey S. Brooks and Mark T. Miles; (6) School Reform and Freire's Methodolgy of Conscientization, Kathleen S. Sernak.   (7) A neglected dimension of social justice: A model for science education in rural schools, Mary John O'Hair and Ulrich C. Reitzug; (8) A Collaboration of Community Educators Follows Crisis in Cincinnati: Two Museums and a University Join Forces to Promote Understanding, Lionel H. Brown, Judith I. Larsen, Ruth S.Britt, Donna M. Ruiz, and Rachel Star; (9) Student Voice Or Empowerment? Examining the Role of School-Based Youth-Adult Partnerships as an Avenue Toward Focusing on Social Justice, Dana L. Mitra; (10) Leadership for Social Justice and Morality: Collaborative Partnerships, School-Linked Services, and the Plight of the Poor, Anthony H. Normore and Roger I. Blanco; (11) Ethics, Values, and Social Justice Leadership: Embarking on a Moral Quest for Authenticity, Pauline Leonard; (12) (Re-) Constructing a Movement for Social Justice in Our Profession, Steven Jay Gross; (13) A New DEEL for an Old Problem: Social Justice at the Core, Valerie A. Storey and Thomas E. Beeman; and (14) Ethics and Social Justice Within the New DEEL: Addressing the Paradox of Control/Democracy, Joan Poliner Shapiro.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Justice, School Personnel, Leadership, Rural Schools

Price, Joshua (2009). The Effects of Higher Admission Standards on NCAA Student-Athletes: An Analysis of Proposition 16, Cornell Higher Education Research Institute. This study examines the effect of an increase in minimum admissions standards on college enrollment and graduation rates of student-athletes. In 1996, the NCAA enacted Proposition 16, which increased the admission standards for freshmen student-athletes at Division I schools in an effort to improve graduation rates. Results indicate that Proposition 16 increased graduation rates significantly for black student-athletes, and had no significant impact on graduation rates for white student-athletes. Results also indicate that graduation rates declined for black student-athletes at Division II schools, which may be driven by students transferring to Division I. As a result of the higher admission standard Division I schools changed recruiting patterns and relied less on freshmen student-athletes, particularly black student-athletes, to fill scholarships. Even though fewer black freshmen student-athletes enrolled in Division I schools, the overall number of black student-athletes did not change, suggesting that greater proportion of transfer students into Division I schools were black.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, College Athletics, Graduation Rate, Athletes

Brainard, Patricia Jones (2009). White Lies: A Critical Race Study of Power and Privilege, ProQuest LLC. This was a phenomenological study of racial privilege as experienced by White people who have struggled to become more racially aware and socially active in dismantling racism and White privilege. The primary conceptual framework for this study was Critical Race Theory with Transformative Learning theory and Racial Identity Development as additional theoretical lenses. The purpose of this study was to increase our awareness of how White people come to understand their racial privilege and what change in behavior occurs as a result of that increased awareness. Its goal was to promote and influence White adult educators to find explicit ways in which to address White privilege and racism in adult education settings.   There were seven participants in this study. These were White adults who could articulate their understanding of White privilege and were willing to share those critical incidents that led to an increased consciousness about that privilege. The findings of the study revealed seven common experiences among these participants. Each began an understanding of privilege through a Black/White binary and had limited contact with people of Color growing up. They had self-constructed a deep reflective process, learned empathy, and their growth and development was a continuous process. Each struggled with their intention to not be racist when in fact they could not help but act in racist ways. In addition, each experienced many critical incidents that were transformative in nature. Within these incidents, common elements emerged that contributed to and influenced their growth and development in their understanding of racial privilege. More importantly and perhaps surprisingly, these elements did not exist in isolation. Instead, there seemed to be a convergence of these elements that, when combined, fostered growth. These elements included: (1) a critical incident that challenged the participants previous assumptions; (2) a mentor-type relationship with a person of Color; (3) moral or ethical anguish or regret; and (4) a relational nature and deep commitment to the growth of themselves and others.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Whites, Phenomenology, Consciousness Raising, Racial Bias

Shaklee, Beverly (2004). Responding to Young Children and Their Culture: Closing the Gap, Understanding Our Gifted. Among the most interesting groups of children in gifted education today are those who are "new Americans"–children of different cultures and different languages. These children bring with them the same talents, gifts, and intellect that other children have; however, the way they manifest their gifts may be somewhat different based on family values, traditions, and beliefs. The expression of these gifts may also differ based on language, relational patterns (patterns of interaction with others), or the symbol systems used to communicate. Because of the diversity of the incoming school-age population, educators need to reexamine the lens through which giftedness is viewed, how they observe the indicators of giftedness, and how they allow all children to manifest their gifts and talents. One possible model to use when looking at these children is derived from the field of multicultural education and is known as culturally responsive teaching, which Gay (2000, p. ix) describes as "…a model for teaching low-income students and students of color to provide hope and guidance to educators who are trying to improve the academic achievement of these groups." The model asks schools and teachers to capitalize on the child's cultural and language strengths. It seeks greater congruence between the culture of the child and the culture of the school in order to improve academic achievement. The author contends that the field of gifted education will continue to work toward equality of access to services. It may be that closing the achievement gap is related more to the awareness, knowledge, and skills of teachers than it is to the children themselves.   [More]  Descriptors: Achievement Gap, Multicultural Education, Gifted, Educational Change

Jones, Johnny D. (2004). Succeeding by Any Means Necessary, Black Issues in Higher Education. Black graduate students at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) usually are classified into four categories–teaching assistant, research assistant, graduate assistant and (Black) student quota. And each group has its own unique set of problems. On any predominantly White campus, Black faculty are expected to, and are unofficially required to, oversee the well-being of Black graduate students, thus releasing non-Black faculty from concomitant responsibility. Black faculty, therefore, face many more time constraints, as well as the often unrealistic expectations of Black students who do not understand the pressure placed on Black faculty. For the near future, Black graduate students will continue to constitute a minority at PWIs. If the problems that accompany them are to be dealt with effectively, then Black graduate students must take advantage of the resources Black faculty have to offer. Isolation at any PWI–self-imposed or otherwise–could wreak havoc with the Black student's probability of success. The PWI is not a utopia, but Black graduate students should use all resources to help them succeed by any means necessary. Descriptors: Graduate Students, Research Assistants, African American Students, Educational Environment

Banks, James A. (2004). Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope, Multicultural Perspectives. The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural southern Black community, there was a conspiracy of silence about "Brown". It was completely invisible. The silence, loss, rage, and hope that "Brown" evoked still simmer in Black and White communities throughout the United States. Schools throughout the nation are now resegregated. Blacks and Whites often remain silent to maintain the peace. Blacks feel that much of their culture has been lost and eradicated from the schools in their communities. There is White rage about affirmative action and massive immigration and Black rage about their plight in America. "Brown" gave people hope that America might one day overcome its deep and entrenched racial legacy and indicated how difficult this journey was and still is.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Community, Court Litigation, Desegregation Litigation, Desegregation Effects

Tegeler, Philip; Eaton, Susan; Miller, Westra (2009). Bringing Children Together: Magnet Schools and Public Housing Redevelopment, Poverty & Race Research Action Council (NJ1). This report grows out of a conference roundtable on public housing redevelopment, magnet schools, and Justice Reinvestment held on February 29, 2008, in Tampa, Florida. The roundtable was made possible through the financial support of the Open Society Institute (OSI). It was organized and hosted by the Poverty & Race Research Action Council (PRRAC) and the Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice at Harvard Law School. The roundtable brought together the nation's leading magnet school developers and planners of HOPE VI and public housing redevelopment projects. The goal of the gathering was to collaboratively assess the feasibility of using these proven approaches–magnet schools and HOPE VI–simultaneously. The roundtable was also part of a series of strategic collaborative discussions that explored the potential of deliberately linking housing and school policy in the wake of the Supreme Court's 2007 decision in "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District." The particular insights of this convening contribute directly to other efforts to combine school and housing policy in support of civil rights goals. To provide context for the findings on HOPE VI and magnet school development, the authors offer an overview of the research literature on the relationship between housing and schools. Appended are: (1) The "Opportunity Housing and Schools Act of 2009"; (2) February 28, 2008 Conference Agenda; and (3) List of Conference Attendees.   [More]  Descriptors: Literature, African American Students, Civil Rights, School Policy

Gonzalez, Gilbert G. (2004). Richard Kluger's "Simple Justice": Race, Class, and United States Imperialism, History of Education Quarterly. Richard Kluger's monumental "Simple Justice" reaffirms the long-held liberal contention that any analysis of the complex social relations in the United States must acknowledge the centrality of racism. Racism historically contributed to shaping of the political culture, social interactions, and legal status of groups throughout the United States. This work is of epic proportions, tracing in great detail the evolution of the history of the black struggle to overturn the 1896 "Plessy" decision which declared the fallacious, antidemocratic notion that "separate but equal" meets the test of the Constitution. In this article, the author examines the historical accounts in Kluger's book. The author observes that Kluger's analysis passes on matters which are salient to understanding the history of racism and enforced class inequality in American society.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Policy, Racial Relations, Racial Segregation, Race

Higginbotham, Elizabeth (2004). Invited Reaction: Black and White Women Managers–Access to Opportunity, Human Resource Development Quarterly. In a survey of Black and White women managers, Linda M. Hite identifies differences in the managers' perceptions of opportunities available to different race and gender groups. Her findings reveal divergent beliefs about the opportunities for people of color; there is more similarity in Black and White women's views when comparing opportunities for White women and men for getting hired, promoted, receiving salary increases, and other workplace challenges. When making comparisons with either men or women of color, White women are far more optimistic about the opportunities for people of color than are Black women. Hite uses this study to explore the lack of attention to race and racial discrimination among White women, whose views are often assumed to represent all women in management. HRD practice and research can look more closely at the perceptions and experiences of Black women to learn how better to promote their careers, since strategies that increase the number of White women might not be helpful in advancing the careers of Black and other women of color.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, Whites, African Americans, Comparative Analysis

Suggs, Vickie L. (2008). The Production of Political Discourse: Annual Radio Addresses of Black College Presidents during the 1930s and 1940s, ProQuest LLC. The social and political role of Black college presidents in the 1930s and 1940s via annual radio addresses is a relevant example of how the medium of the day was used as an apparatus for individual and institutional agency. The nationalist agenda of the United States federal government indirectly led to the opportunity for Black college leadership to address the rhetoric of democracy, patriotism, and unified citizenship. The research focuses on the social positioning of the radio addresses as well as their role in the advancement of Black Americans. The primary question that informs the research is whether the 1930s and 1940s was a period of rising consciousness for Black America. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of radio during the pre- to post-war era, its parallel use by the United States federal government and historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), and the interrelationship between education, politics, and society. The use of social history allows historical evidence to be viewed from the lens of identifying social trends. The social trends of the period examined include the analysis of economics, politics, and education. An additional benefit of using social history is the way in which it examines the masses and how they help shape history in conjunction with the leaders of a given period of examination. The research method also entails an in-depth analysis of 14 annual radio addresses delivered by three Black college presidents in the South during the 1930s and 1940s: Mordecai W. Johnson, James E. Shepard, and Benjamin E. Mays. Common themes found among radio addresses include morality and ethical behavior; economic, political, and social equality; access and inclusion in a democratic society; and a collective commitment to a just society. Black education as a form of racial uplift unveiled the meaning of access and the collective advancement of the race. Agreeing to deliver the radio addresses as a part of government-sponsored programming resulted in an inter-racial alliance between Black college leadership and the federal government. To this end, Black college leadership operationalized their access and education to benefit the needs of their race.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: Social History, Sociocultural Patterns, Black Colleges, Democracy

Kelleher, Constance; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Power, Thomas J. (2008). An Initial Comparison of Collaborative and Expert-Driven Consultation on Treatment Integrity, Journal of Educational & Psychological Consultation. Although over 15 years have passed since Witt (1990) noted that no empirical evidence exists to support the contention that a collaborative approach to consultation leads to more positive outcomes than a hierarchical or expert driven approach, this issue generally remains unaddressed (Schulte & Osborne, 2003). While the literature documenting the benefits of consultation has continued to grow, a true head-to-head comparison has not been conducted. The purpose of the present study was to directly address Witt's call by empirically examining the impact of two consultation styles on a critical variable, practitioner treatment integrity. It was hypothesized that the involvement of practitioners in all aspects of intervention design would increase their level of treatment integrity. Two single-subject experiments using multiple baseline across subjects designs were used to examine the difference in level of treatment integrity for an imported, expert-driven intervention and a partnership-designed intervention. The first experiment was divided into three phases: (a) Phase I, Expert-driven Model; (b) Phase II, Treatment Integrity Intervention; and (c) Phase III, Partnership Model. The second experiment presented the three phases in reverse order to address the possibility of presentation effects: (a) Phase I, Partnership Model; (b) Phase II, Expert-driven Model; and (c) Phase III, Treatment Integrity Intervention. In general, the five participants who completed the three phases of the experiments demonstrated higher levels of treatment integrity during the partnership phase. Overall, the results suggest that engaging with consultees in a collaborative approach may increase the level of integrity with which the intervention is applied.   [More]  Descriptors: Intervention, Expertise, Consultants, Comparative Analysis

De War, Joshua J. (2009). Retention and Access Issues Affecting Black Women Attending Predominantly White Institutions, ProQuest LLC. This study examined the self-reported experiences of Black, female, undergraduate students at a small, predominantly White, Midwestern college in the United States in order to identify factors affecting retention. Specific attention was paid to how participants perceived the effects of personal and institutional factors in relation to their persistence in college as well as to the mechanisms utilized by the students to receive the support they deemed necessary to achieve academic and social success. Research was conducted to determine how participants felt their collegiate experiences were impacted by their race and gender and to learn more about resources needed or used by participants in order to be retained by the institution.   Retention models developed by Spady (1971), Tinto (1975, 1987, 1993), Bean (1980), and Astin (1994) were reviewed to provide a foundation for the work. Additionally, an overview of Black Feminist Epistemology was presented to provide the researcher and readers of the work a better understanding of the lived experiences of women in this group.   The research methodology for this study was ethnographic. Journaling was used as the modality for data collection. Participants were assigned individual weblogs from a predetermined website and asked to journal, via the use of these weblogs, for six weeks. Posted entries elaborated on the experiences of being both Black and female on a predominantly White college campus. Blogs were chosen as data collection instruments because of the ways in which they promote interactive communication, for their ease of use, and because of their popularity.   Data analysis focused on examining qualitative information collected from the blog entries of 14 participants to determine common themes (factors). Five major themes were discovered that categorized the women's experiences: institutional factors influencing success, personal factors influencing success, sources of support, retention and attrition, and study participation. From these themes, a number of implications were derived. Such implications, when examined by administrators in higher education, may provide insight on how to increase the retention of Black women at predominantly White institutions. Some of these implications include establishing a critical mass of students of color on White campuses, providing adequate financial aid for minority student's nationally, supporting additional family programming at colleges, and regularly assessing institutional cultural climate. Lastly, both positives and pitfalls in creating and validating a retention model designed specifically to address the needs of women of color in academe are presented.   [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page: www.proquest.com/en-US/products/dissertations/individuals.shtml.%5D   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Undergraduate Students, Web Sites, Electronic Publishing

Walsh, Mark (2004). Topeka Museum Captures "Brown" Legacy, Education Week. The Monroe School was one of the four segregated grade schools where the Topeka board of education assigned black schoolchildren. The building had been through many permutations since it closed in 1975. Its long-term future was a question mark, but the Brown Foundation will embark on a mission to preserve a local and national historic site. The Monroe School will culminate in its dedication as a museum depicting the story of the "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka" case and related battles for desegregation and civil rights.   [More]  Descriptors: Museums, Civil Rights, Historic Sites, Racial Segregation

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