Bibliography: African Americans (page 1196 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Marvin Lynn, Lesley-Ann Brown, Anthony Harris, Tressie A. Nickelberry, Douglas Gagnon, Gabrielle St. Leger, Jennifer A. Price, Rochelle Gutierrez, Christen Cullum Hairston, and Lance Montieth Chase.

Nickelberry, Tressie A. (2012). The Experiences of Blacks Who Obtained Doctorates from Predominantly White Institutions, ProQuest LLC. Being in a doctoral program requires a substantial amount of one's time, energy, and commitment. Doctoral students face many challenges while pursuing their degrees. For example, some may be on financial aid, work full-time, and/or have a family. While doctoral students face many hurdles, Black doctoral students face additional barriers. The purpose of this study was to reveal the perspectives and experiences of Blacks who obtained doctorates from predominately White institutions. This study offers insight into the atypical challenges that Black doctoral students faced while in graduate school, their motivation to persist, and the role of racial and ethnic identity in the graduate school experience. Qualitative research methods were used to examine the journey of those Black students, who completed their doctorates at predominately White institutions. Critical race theory and constructivism were used as the theoretical underpinnings of this study. Case study methodology was employed to provide each participant with the opportunity to vocalize their reality to obtain a better understanding of the overarching issue. Ten participants were interviewed for this study and their transcripts were analyzed to understand their perspectives on the experience. Three main themes emerged after analyzing the data, which explained the participants' doctoral journeys. First, the participants shared their motivation for continuing in the program. The participants explained that family impact, personal drive, and acknowledging that an education was the key to social mobility served as their motivation to complete their doctoral programs. Second, the individuals discussed the pressure they were made to feel that they had to represent their entire race. Typically, the participants were the only one or one of few students of color in their program. Last, the participants expressed that handling of diversity issues in the classroom was of concern to them. They felt that faculty and non-Black students did not embrace this area. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Graduate Students, Doctoral Programs, Whites

Chase, Lance Montieth (2012). From Recess to Lockdown: Targeting Adult and Child School-Based Practices and Behaviors That Impact Black Male Entry into the School to Prison Pipeline, ProQuest LLC. Prior studies establish that Black males follow a disproportionate trajectory from school to prison when compared to other groups. This same research has documented that multiple risk factors operating within schools may contribute to this phenomenon, commonly known as the "school to prison pipeline." The specific focus of the present study was to investigate multiple contextual risk and protective factors at an alternative secondary school that may impact the future likelihood for Black male incarceration. Guided by the Ecological Systems Theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1989) and the Phenomenological Variant of Ecological Systems Theory (Spencer, Dupree, & Hartmann, 1997) and utilizing information from observations and interviews with students, teachers and school administrators, and survey data from the latter, this study drew largely on a qualitative approach to assess the extent to which several school-based factors would affect life-stage outcomes for Black adolescent males, including biased teacher perceptions, disparities in school discipline procedures, and stringent school policies. The research setting of a disciplinary alternative school, representing one of the ultimate destination points in some student's trajectory from school to prison, was a place of great significance in the study's attempt to understand a chain of events precipitating Black male students' enrollment in more restrictive and punitive school settings. It was postulated that behaviors, policies, practices inherent in this alternative school environment would affect negative or positive outcomes for a Black male student population. Findings revealed that the attitudes, decisions, and behaviors of all participants were a virtual "tipping point" in determining potential pathways towards higher education or, alternatively, incarceration for Black male students. All of the Black male student participants in the present study had a history of school suspensions, and more than half of those interviewed had a parole officer who monitored their attendance in school. These key findings are discussed as well as their implications for future research and school policies and practices. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Males, Disproportionate Representation, Environmental Influences

Gutierrez, Rochelle; Irving, Sonya E. (2012). Latino/a and Black Students and Mathematics. The Students at the Center Series, Jobs For the Future. Using new perspectives on mathematics as a cultural and social activity and new research on learning outside the school, the authors ask readers to rethink the problem of mathematical achievement for all students, and for Latino/a and black students in particular. The paper argues that doing so will help those students connect how they learn in the classroom to their lives outside of school, and help reduce the "achievement gaps" that exist in our current educational system.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Hispanic American Students, Mathematics Achievement, Mathematics Instruction

Vuong, Bi; Hairston, Christen Cullum (2012). Using Data to Improve Minority-Serving Institution Success, Institute for Higher Education Policy. To meet our nation's college completion goals by 2025, postsecondary institutions must graduate a total of 23 million more students over the next 13 years. As the higher education sector continues to consider strategies to meet this ambitious goal, it is crucial that higher education institutions use data effectively to analyze where they are, where they need to be, and what steps will get them there. Many institutions that serve large numbers of 21st century students who are crucial to meeting the goal and have been traditionally underserved in the past–such as students of color, low-income students, and first-generation college students–have extensive knowledge of how to best support students and reduce barriers from enrollment to graduation. Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs) in particular have historically educated and graduated a large proportion of underserved students. Therefore, MSIs have great potential for graduating an even larger number of college graduates over the next decade. This brief highlights how MSIs can better identify, collect, and use data for internal decision making and provide external audiences with a deeper understanding of how MSIs contribute to the higher education landscape. Specifically, this brief highlights how MSIs from the Lumina MSI-Models of Success project have used data to implement policy and programmatic changes on their campuses in support of student and institutional success. The goal of this brief is to continue a conversation about ways MSIs can build upon their data work to improve future reporting, analyses, and decision making. In addition, the lessons shared in the brief have broad application to other institutions, especially those that serve students from disadvantaged backgrounds. This is the second in a series of briefs by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP) to feature emerging themes from the Lumina MSI-Models of Success program.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Institutional Mission, First Generation College Students, African American Students

Alliance for Excellent Education (2012). Caught in the Crisis: Students of Color and Native Students in U.S. High Schools. Nationally, millions of students in grades 7-12 are at risk of dropping out of high school because of low literacy skills, poor attendance, and class failure. The absence of a college- and career-ready education for these students is a civil rights and social justice issue that the federal government cannot ignore. Unfortunately, many of these students come from groups that are underserved and underrepresented, therefore failing to ensure that they receive a high quality education will continue a cycle of poverty and disenfranchisement that the education system itself is intended to disrupt. This fact sheet provides information and policy issues for high school students of color and Native students in the United States, a group that makes up a significant portion of high school dropouts each year.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Dropouts, Social Justice, Educational Quality

Harris-Scott, Lynnette H. (2012). Spaces Where We Know Who to Be: Black Girls Reading Reflections of and Speaking for Themselves, ProQuest LLC. This study explores how academically talented Black girls read, write and narrate their lived experiences while attending a predominantly white, selective admissions urban high school. Black girls in these types of settings often experience feelings of isolation and silencing, unjust treatment, and underrepresentation in the curriculum (Carter, 2006; Fordham, 1996; Henry, 1998b; Pastor et al., 1996; Rollock, 2007). Drawing from a year-long qualitative study on the development and enactment of a special interest class, this narrative inquiry documents the co-construction of this class, or safe space, with eight young women. Drawing upon Critical Race Theory, Black feminist epistemology, and New Literacy Studies, the study addresses questions of agency, social injustice, and under/representation by exploring with Black girls the counternarratives of their lived experiences. This study describes how young Black women used discursive and literacy practices to transgress common notions of Black girlhood, as well as to sort out queries into their own identities. In this setting, all of the students were academically gifted, so the "usual" issues often facing Black students in schools in terms of the achievement gap were absent. Instead, the participants in this study explored issues of racial tensions in and out of school. The data in this study suggest that the participants have feelings of invisibility in school, experience social injustice both in and out of school, and struggle with complex relationships with other Black kids. Additionally, the space that was created within the context of this study was used by the participants not only to work on their individual identities, but also to help each other sort through some of the disruptions they were facing in their common experiences. The stories of the participants in this study offer new perspectives on socially just educational practices for gifted Black girls. They also suggest a number of opportunities and challenges associated with addressing racial tensions in schools, and confirm the importance of capitalizing on students' epistemologies. This study examines possibilities for reimagining what it would mean to have multiracial educational practices that respect and build on the complexities of the concept of diversity. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Females, High School Students, Selective Admission

Lynn, Marvin (2006). Education for the Community: Exploring the Culturally Relevant Practices of Black Male Teachers, Teachers College Record. Black men have remained largely absent from the educational discourse on teachers and teaching. Even more important, their perspectives have not been fully considered in the debates over what constitutes culturally relevant classroom practice. In this article, portraits of the teaching lives of three Black men who worked as full-time teachers in urban schools in California are drawn. The portraits outline the teachers' entree into teaching, their views on pedagogy, and their culturally and racially sensitive pedagogical practice.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Teachers, Males, Teaching (Occupation), Culturally Relevant Education

Price, Jennifer A. (2012). Sharing Student Background Information with Faculty: Does It Make a Difference?, ProQuest LLC. In this dissertation, I present a mixed-methods case study that focuses on gaps in average academic achievement among students of different socio-economic statuses (Reardon, 2011; Sirin, 2005). I examine the impact on student achievement of one administrator's decision to provide all faculty members with a list that identified students from low-income families in their classes and caseloads ("the intervention"). Specifically, I used administrative student data in both a one-year (n = 735) and two-year (n = 1487) window surrounding the intervention to conduct a differences-in-differences analysis to obtain an unbiased estimate of the causal impact of the intervention on student achievement. I also administered a descriptive survey (58.2% response rate) to the faculty (n = 201), in which faculty members' self-reported changes in practice and their reactions to knowing the identity of their students from low-income families. In my analysis, I found that the intervention led the faculty to help these students gain access to additional academic resources and caused an improvement in achievement of the students from low-income families. This positive impact held true across several outcome measures including grades and state tests, and across two comparison groups. For instance, on average, English grades improved by 0.28 of a letter grade (p = 0.057) for students from low-income families. For a prototypical student, this increase represents moving from an English grade-point average of 2.15 to 2.43, a 13% increase. The intervention also reduced the school's gaps in student achievement, by socio-economic status. The causal impact of sharing the list of students from low-income families was no greater, on average, for White and Asian students than for Black and Hispanic students. The majority (65.81%) of the faculty who responded to the descriptive survey said that knowing about these students' income levels had either some impact or a strong impact on how they connected these students to additional resources. Of the faculty who responded to the survey, 75.2% said knowing the names of their students from low-income families had no or minimal impact on their expectations of these students, and 57.27% reported the intervention had no or minimal impact on their perceptions of students from low-income families. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Mixed Methods Research, Case Studies, Academic Achievement, Achievement Gap

Harper, Shaun R.; Harris, Frank, III (2012). Men of Color: A Role for Policymakers in Improving the Status of Black Male Students in U.S. Higher Education, Institute for Higher Education Policy. Across all levels of education, young men's comparatively lower levels of educational achievement and attainment, as well as problematic behavioral trends (e.g., sexual assault, binge drinking, property destruction, suicides, campus shootings), have garnered attention from journalists, educators, school administrators, parents, and others. Conversations have included male undergraduates from a range of racial backgrounds. However, disproportionate emphasis has been placed on Black undergraduate men, a population that is repeatedly characterized as one of the most underrepresented, stereotyped, disengaged, and lowest performing students on college and university campuses. Despite the attention that has been devoted to their current condition in U.S. higher education, only recently have Black men emerged as a serious focus among federal and state policymakers. This report argues that they should be a center of attention. The purpose of this report is threefold: (1) To provide a summary of policy–relevant trends and issues concerning Black male college students; (2) To offer a snapshot of current initiatives that aim to address the problematic condition of college success for Black undergraduate men; and (3) To propose a role for policymakers at all levels–institutional, federal, and state–as well as other relevant groups such as the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), and influential organizations such as foundations, community-based organizations, and higher education associations in improving Black men's educational outcomes and postsecondary degree attainment rates. (Contains 4 tables, 3 figures, and 37 footnotes.) [This publication was produced with the Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education, Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania and the Institute for Higher Education Policy's Pathways to College Network.]   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Higher Education, Outcomes of Education, Drinking

Harris, Anthony (2006). A Personal Account of Efforts to End School Segregation in a Southern School System, International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation. The Brown Decision, whose 50th Anniversary was observed in 2004, was a landmark case that ended the doctrine of separate but equal. During the observation of the anniversary, many pundits reflected on the political, social, and historical significance of Brown. This article takes a different approach in reflecting on the importance of Brown. A historical context is provided that reveals the conditions that existed in the south prior to and after the Brown Decision. The author tells the poignant and moving story of his first hand experience in desegregating a previously all-white junior high school twelve years after the Brown Decision. Conduct by students, teachers, and administrators had a direct affect on his experience as one of five black children to end school desegregation in a small Mississippi town.   [More]  Descriptors: School Segregation, School Desegregation, Desegregation Litigation, Junior High Schools

Phillips, Deidre Marshall (2012). The Relationship between Educational Placement, Instructional Practices, and Achievement Gains of Black Students with Specific Learning Disabilities in Secondary Urban School Settings, ProQuest LLC. Black students, in general, are underserved academically (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Townsend, 2002) and overrepresented in special education (Donovan & Cross, 2002). Black students with disabilities are further overrepresented in more restrictive educational environments (Skiba, Poloni-Staudinger, Gallini, Simmons & Feggins-Azziz, 2006). Although the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) revealed that the academic performance of students with learning disabilities is positively related to the percentage of courses taken in the general education setting (Newman, 2006), the research specifically on placement of Black students with disabilities, particularly at the secondary level, as it relates to academic achievement is lacking. While previous studies have sought to determine which placement is better for students with disabilities, no study was found that specifically examined the impact of placement specific to Black students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) in urban settings (Fore, III, Hagan-Burke, Burke, Boon & Smith, 2008; Rea, McLaughlin & Walther-Thomas, 2002). This study examined educational placement, instructional best practices, and achievement gains of Black students with SLD in urban secondary settings using an ex post facto research design. Achievement, placement, and demographic data were collected and analyzed on approximately 314 Black eighth grade students with SLD. The Teacher Instructional Practices Survey was developed and used to collect and analyze data from the teachers of 78 of these students as it relates to instructional best practices. Results indicate no significant difference in reading but a significant difference in math gains of students served in inclusive settings as compared to resource settings with a small effect size. Also, no significant relationship was found between achievement gains and the reported use of instructional best practices. However, there was a relationship between educational placement and the use of instructional best practices. The results implied that there is a need for training with both general and special education teachers on instructional best practices for SWD and that there should be certain IEP team considerations when making placement decisions for this population of students with disabilities. It is recommended that future research in this area include classroom observations and factors other than test scores to measure growth in achievement. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Student Placement, Learning Disabilities, Urban Schools

Brown, Lesley-Ann (2012). Examining the Relationship between Minority Status Stress, the Social Change Model of Leadership Development, and Persistence of Black Students at Predominantly White Institutions, ProQuest LLC. Minority status stress, which is the stress Black college students experience at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) as a result of their racial minority status, has been found to negatively impact their persistence in college. Two manuscripts were developed for this dissertation. The first is a critical literature review which establishes the relationship of minority status stress, persistence, and leadership values within psychological and higher educational scholarship of Black students at PWIs. The paper seeks to clarify the connection between the aforementioned variables as it relates to the Black student experience at PWIs. As minority status stress causes a threat to Black student persistence, leadership conceptualized using the values or the Cs of the Social Change Model of Leadership Development (SCM) were introduced as coping methods Black students have used to increase their persistence and minimize the negative effects of minority status stress. The second article is a quantitative study examining the relationship of minority status stress and persistence employing the Cs of the SCM as mediators in a sample of 340 Black college students. Results indicated that none of the Cs of the SCM fully mediated the relationship between minority status stress and persistence when employed as composite scores. However, when the six individual factors of minority status stress (environmental stressors, race-related stressors, racial-identity stressors, intrapersonal and interpersonal stressors, achievement-related stressors, and minority status stressors) and the 5 factors of persistence (academic and intellectual development, faculty concerns for student development and teaching, interactions with faculty, institutional and goal commitments, and peer group interactions) were employed in a series of multiple mediation analyses with the Cs of the SCM as mediators, there were several instances of full mediation by the Consciousness of Self, Citizenship, and Change values. The findings emphasized the importance of these three values in conceptualizing Black student leadership at PWIs and in understanding the role of leadership in Black student persistence in lieu of minority status stress. Suggestions for future research, implications, and recommendations for student affairs practitioners, other student services providers, faculty, and staff are discussed. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Social Change, Models, Leadership Training, Academic Persistence

Funk, Michael Sean (2012). Making Something of It: The Untold Stories of Promising Black Males at a Predominately White Institution of Higher Education, ProQuest LLC. Promising Black males are an understudied and underserved population in the field of higher education. The purpose of this study was to understand how promising Black males define academic success and to identify the factors that affect academic success at a large predominately White public institutions of higher education located in the Northeast. The participants in this study are nine self-identified Black males who were not eligible to enter the Honors College upon admittance into the University, but were recruited to enroll in the Honors College following the completion of their freshmen year or were students that successfully enrolled into the Honors College after transferring from another college. The study implemented an inductive grounded theory methodology with interview data and data from an Academic and Personal Profile Assessment Form. The data were then transcribed and analyzed for major themes. The primary research questions that guided this study were: (1) How do Black male promising scholars define academic success? (2) What factors affect their academic success at a predominately White institution of higher education? The study found that participants define academic success by their grades, learning for the sake of learning, and the ability to transfer what they learn in the classroom into practical everyday life applications. Parents, mentors, peers, and community and professional oriented goals served as the primary influences in defining success for this population of students. The study also found that (1) Black males attributed a number of personal qualities possessed and study strategies incorporated for their academic success; (2) being Black was a salient social-identity; (3) there were several commonalities and distinctions among disaggregated Black ethnic-groups; (4) debunking stereotypes about Black males, high parental expectations to attend college, the hope of transforming negative situations into positive outcomes, and community-oriented responsibilities served as primary motivators for academic success; and (5) group-specific academic support programs were a significant contribution to the academic success for this group of students. Results from this study may be useful for practitioners, administrators, and faculty members within higher education institutions who are seeking to enhance the academic experiences of this population of students. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: African Americans, Males, Success, Academic Achievement

Gagnon, Douglas; Mattingly, Marybeth J. (2012). Beginning Teachers Are More Common in Rural, High-Poverty, and Racially Diverse Schools. Issue Brief No. 53, Carsey Institute. This brief considers whether the concentration of beginning teachers in a district is associated with the district's poverty rate, racial composition, or urbanicity. Authors Douglas Gagnon and Marybeth Mattingly report that poor communities have moderately higher percentages of beginning teachers than communities with lower poverty rates and that a higher concentration of minority students in a district is associated with a higher percentage of beginning teachers. Large cities, remote towns, and rural districts have higher percentages of beginning teachers than midsized-small cities, suburbs, and fringe-distant town districts. The combined impact of poverty, race, and urbanicity has a substantial effect on the probability that a district has a critically high percentage of beginning teachers. A high percentage of beginning teachers likely reflects higher teacher turnover in the district, and could suggest issues of teacher quality. The brief uses combined data from the 2009-2010 Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC), the 2009 Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE), and the 2010 U.S. Census to form a nationally representative data source of 6,569 districts.   [More]  Descriptors: Teacher Effectiveness, Racial Composition, Minority Group Students, Beginning Teachers

St. Leger, Gabrielle (2012). Black Male Retention Initiatives: Exploring Students' Experiences and Program Effectiveness at Predominantly White Institutions, ProQuest LLC. Recent initiatives in higher education have been designed to increase Black undergraduate male collegiate retention and persistence through graduation for this historically underrepresented population. Although institutional leaders in higher education have focused on creating more inclusive campuses, designing and implementing programs to retain Black undergraduate men have remained largely under studied. Specifically at predominantly white institutions (PWIs), a step in the process is evaluating and assessing the efforts for effectiveness and impact on students' overall development and success. Programs that have achieved ways to increase the retention rates have information that is useful in reversing low retention and graduation should be empirically studied. This qualitative study of retention initiatives at two state institutions explores the development of the retention initiative; how initiatives are structured within an institution's overall diversity plan; and what the overall impact is on the participants and the institutional environment. Focus group interviews conducted with student participants, interviews of the institutional leadership involved in implementing the initiative, along with a document analysis of cases are used to answer how Black male retention initiatives affect campus diversity initiatives and advance student development and success. While both cases focused on retention through student engagement, accountability, and leadership development, each case used separate foundational principles to carry out the same mission to retain Black males. Northwestern State University (pseudonym) focused on developing students' cultural awareness and Black identity while Southern State University (pseudonym) focused on building students' sense of humility and interdependency. These case studies and the underlying research prove that leadership support, funding and institutionalization have had and can have a measurable effect on young men of color. Institutional culture matters for individuals, and institutional policy can affect change for good. These efforts to create inclusive environments for Black undergraduate men at PWIs have required time to develop and to bring about deep and pervasive change to affect this population's collegiate experience. A critical step in the process is evaluating and measuring the effectiveness and impact on students' overall success. Through assessment, programs that have improved Black male retention may serve as benchmarks for reversing low retention and graduation. Included in the study are individual analyses of each institution and a cross-case comparison that provides in-depth description of these Black undergraduate male initiatives and specifies implications for institutional leaders incorporating a race and gender based retention program into an overall campus-wide diversity initiative. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Qualitative Research, Higher Education, College Students, African American Students

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