Bibliography: African Americans (page 1195 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Stephane Mechoulan, Leda E. Nath, Noelle A. Molinari, Ada Skyles, Shannon Guiltinan, Charles Murray, Matthew J. Smith, Bradley J. Fisher, Mary Eschelbach Hansen, and Catherine A. Gallagher.

Kaplowitz, Stan A.; Broman, Clifford L.; Fisher, Bradley J. (2006). Perceptions of Economic and Behavioral Differences between Blacks and Whites: Racial Attitudes of White Americans and Status Generalization, Social Psychology Quarterly. A telephone survey of Michigan residents provided statistics about the economic conditions and undesirable behavior of white Americans and asked respondents to estimate the corresponding statistics for blacks. Data from white respondents showed that the greater the perceived racial difference (PRD) in rates of undesirable behavior, the more blacks were seen as not trying to better themselves and the less blacks were viewed as experiencing discrimination. The greater the PRD in economic status, especially controlling for education, the more respondents saw racial discrimination as continuing. Controlling for the PRD in Undesirable Behavior, however, the PRD in economic status had little effect on the belief that blacks do not make effort. Implications of these results for status generalization processes are discussed. Because respondents underestimated all racial differences, accurate knowledge of racial statistics might increase both the belief that discrimination continues and the belief that blacks fail to make an effort.   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Status, Racial Attitudes, Racial Discrimination, Telephone Surveys

Murray, Charles (2006). Changes over Time in the Black-White Difference on Mental Tests: Evidence from the Children of the 1979 Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Intelligence. Data for three Peabody achievement tests and for the Peabody picture vocabulary test administered to children of women in the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show that the black-white difference did not diminish for this sample of children born from the mid 1970s through the mid 1990s. This finding persists after entering covariates for the child's age and family background variables. It is robust across alternative samples and specifications of the model. The analysis supplements other evidence that shows no narrowing of the black-white difference in academic achievement tests since the late 1980s and is inconsistent with recent evidence that narrowing occurred in IQ standardizations during the same period. A hypothesis for reconciling this inconsistency is proposed.   [More]  Descriptors: Psychological Testing, Achievement Tests, Racial Differences, Whites

Terrell, Francis; Miller, Aletha R.; Foster, Kenneth; Watkins, C. Edward, Jr. (2006). Racial Discrimination-Induced Anger and Alcohol Use among Black Adolescents, Adolescence (San Diego): an international quarterly devoted to the physiological, psychological, psychiatric, sociological, and educational aspects of the second decade of human life. This study explored whether a relationship exists between anger among Black adolescents that has been provoked by racial discrimination, and alcohol consumption. Participants consisted of 134 Black adolescents from 14 to 18 years of age, residing in northeast Texas. All participants were administered a questionnaire measuring whether and the extent to which they might be dependent upon alcohol, a background information questionnaire which included questions about their drinking pattern, and a measure designed to assess the extent to which they feel angry either because they had been discriminated against or observed other Blacks being discriminated against or observed other Blacks being discriminated against in various situations. Only gender was found to be predictive of scores on the dependency scale. However gender, age, and racial discrimination anger scores were found to be predictive of the amount of alcohol consumed by the participants. Some implications for theory, research, and intervention are suggested. Descriptors: Psychological Patterns, Measures (Individuals), Racial Discrimination, Adolescents

Lynn, Marvin (2006). Dancing between Two Worlds: A Portrait of the Life of a Black Male Teacher in South Central LA, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE). This article offers a portrait of a young black male teacher in an urban school in South Central Los Angeles. In the portrait, the words of the subject are intertwined with the thoughts and reactions of the researcher as a way in which to capture his life history narrative and offer his reading of the world. The article discusses the participant's reflections on growing up in South Central, Los Angeles and how it shaped his identity. In particular, the portrait discusses the participant's experiences in middle school, high school and college. The article concludes with some reflections about how Critical Race Theory–as a discourse on race and racism in the law and society–helps us to better understand the lives black men lead.   [More]  Descriptors: Profiles, Males, African American Teachers, Racial Identification

McBee, Matthew T. (2006). A Descriptive Analysis of Referral Sources for Gifted Identification Screening by Race and Socioeconomic Status, Journal of Secondary Gifted Education. A dataset containing demographic information, gifted nomination status, and gifted identification status for all elementary school students in the state of Georgia (N = 705,074) was examined. The results indicated that automatic and teacher referrals were much more valuable than other referral sources. Asian and White students were much more likely to be nominated than Black or Hispanic students. Students receiving free or reduced-price lunches were much less likely to be nominated than students paying for their own lunches. The results suggest that inequalities in nomination, rather than assessment, may be the primary source of the underrepresentation of minority and low-SES students in gifted programs.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Academically Gifted, Identification, Race, Socioeconomic Status

Kalist, David E.; Molinari, Noelle A. (2006). Is the Marginal Child More Likely to Be Murdered? An Examination of State Abortion Ratios and Infant Homicide, Journal of Human Resources. We examine whether abortion removes from the population those infants most at risk of homicide. As part of our identification strategy, we find that abortion reduces the number of unwanted births, estimating that 1 percent increase in the abortion ratio reduces unwanted births by approximately 0.35 percent. Using cross-sectional time-series data for U.S. states between 1970 and 1998, we find that an increase in the abortion ratio (a proxy for unwanted births) reduces the expected number of infant homicides, especially among black infants. Overall, the elasticity of infant homicides with respect to unwanted births is approximately 0.089.   [More]  Descriptors: Crime, Death, Pregnancy, Infants

Mahalik, James R.; Pierre, Martin R.; Wan, Samuel S. C. (2006). Examining Racial Identity and Masculinity as Correlates of Self-Esteem and Psychological Distress in Black Men, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. Data presented for 124 young adult Black men indicate that self-esteem was positively related to participants' Internalization racial identity attitudes, and negatively related to conformity to traditional masculine norms in the dominant culture in the United States. Psychological distress was positively related to Pre-Encounter and Immersion-Emersion racial identity attitudes (J. E. Helms, 1995) and to conformity to masculine norms.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Behavior, Psychology, Young Adults, Norms

Glass, Jennifer; Nath, Leda E. (2006). Religious Conservatism and Women's Market Behavior Following Marriage and Childbirth, Journal of Marriage and Family. This study explores the effect of religious conservatism on the labor force behavior of women who marry or add a new child to their household, using the 1988-1993 National Survey of Families and Households (N = 3,494). We model changes in labor supply, occupation, and wages as a function of either conservative denominational membership or conservative religious belief, holding other economic and demographic characteristics constant. Among Whites, conservative denomination did decrease labor supply following marriage or a marital birth, whereas conservative religious beliefs had larger influences on occupation choice and wages. Among Blacks, conservative denomination increased labor supply following marital births, but neither denomination nor belief affected occupation or wage growth. Results show the significance of religious ideology for understanding continuing gender inequality.   [More]  Descriptors: Birth, Females, Marriage, Labor Force

Hansen, Mary Eschelbach; Hansen, Bradley A. (2006). The Economics of Adoption of Children from Foster Care, Child Welfare. Federal initiatives since 1996 have intensified the efforts of states to achieve adoption for children in foster care. For many waiting children, the path to adoption is long. The authors offer an economic analysis of adoption from foster care, with an emphasis on the reasons why achieving the goal of adoption for all waiting children may be so difficult. The authors then estimate the determinants of adoptions from foster care across the states using data for fiscal years 1996 and 1997. Adoption assistance subsidy rates stand out as the most important determinant of adoptions from foster care, followed by use of alternatives (e.g., intercountry adoption). Adoptive matching on the basis of race does not appear to prevent adoptions from foster care in the aggregate, leaving flaws in the matching process, such as a lack of information and difficulty using the Interstate Compact on the Placement of Children (ICPC), as a primary reason why children wait.   [More]  Descriptors: Adoption, African American Children, Foster Care, Public Policy

Magana, Sandra; Smith, Matthew J. (2006). Health Outcomes of Midlife and Older Latina and Black American Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities, Mental Retardation: A Journal of Practices, Policy and Perspectives. The impact of caring for a child with a developmental disability on the physical and mental health of Latina and Black American women was examined. We used the National Health Interview Survey to compare the health of older mothers who were co-residing with a child who had a developmental disability to the health of same age mothers without caregiving responsibilities. Findings show that for both groups, older adult caregivers were more likely to report having limitations from arthritis than their noncaregiving counterparts. Caregiving was associated with more depressive symptoms for Latinas, but this relationship was not found for Black American women. Findings suggest that physical and mental health of caregivers need more attention in research and practice.   [More]  Descriptors: Older Adults, Caregivers, Mothers, Mental Health

Kantarevic, Jasmin; Mechoulan, Stephane (2006). Birth Order, Educational Attainment, and Earnings: An Investigation Using the PSID, Journal of Human Resources. We examine the implications of being early in the birth order, and whether a pattern exists within large families of falling then rising attainment with respect to birth order. Unlike other studies using U.S. data, we go beyond grade for age and look at racial differences. Drawing from OLS and fixed effects estimations, we find that being first-born confers a significant educational advantage that persists when considering earnings; being last-born confers none. These effects are significant for large Black families at the high school level, and for White families of any size at both high school and college levels.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Differences, Educational Attainment, Birth Order, African Americans

Trotter, Andrew (2006). No Shades of Gray, Education Week. Usually parents choose the schools their children attend, but Kentucky's Jefferson County district's "managed choice" plan has compulsory elements, too. Students are classified by the district as either black or "other," which encompasses white, Asian, and Latino students. A school may not enroll a new student if doing so would push its black enrollment below 15 percent or above 50 percent of the school's total. This article discusses student-assignment plans that take race into account.   [More]  Descriptors: Enrollment Management, School Choice, Racial Differences, Racial Factors

Gallagher, Catherine A.; Dobrin, Adam (2006). Facility-Level Characteristics Associated with Serious Suicide Attempts and Deaths from Suicide in Juvenile Justice Residential Facilities, Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. Little is known about how facility-level characteristics affect the risk of suicide and suicide attempts in juvenile justice residential facilities. This leaves facility administrators and mental health providers without evidence-based guidance on how the facility itself affects risks. The current study uses data from two recently developed censuses of juvenile justice facilities in the United States to examine the relationship between facility-level characteristics and the likelihood of a facility reporting serious suicide attempts and deaths from suicide. Results suggest highest risks for facilities housing larger populations of Black young people and for facilities locking sleeping room doors. Lower risks are found for facilities screening all young people within 24 hours of arrival.   [More]  Descriptors: Residential Institutions, Environmental Influences, Correlation, Suicide

Krueger, Alan; Rothstein, Jesse; Turner, Sarah (2006). Race, Income, and College in 25 Years: Evaluating Justice O'Connor's Conjecture. Center for Studies in Higher Education, Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.19.06, Center for Studies in Higher Education. In Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), Justice Sandra Day O'Connor conjectured that in 25 years affirmative action in college admissions will be unnecessary. We project the test score distribution of black and white college applicants 25 years from now, focusing on the role of black-white family income gaps. Economic progress alone is unlikely to narrow the achievement gap enough in 25 years to produce today's racial diversity levels with race-blind admissions. A return to the rapid black-white test score convergence of the 1980s could plausibly cause black representation to approach current levels at moderately selective schools, but not at the most selective schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Affirmative Action, African Americans, Whites, College Applicants

Chaskin, Robert J.; Goerge, Robert M.; Skyles, Ada; Guiltinan, Shannon (2006). Measuring Social Capital: An Exploration in Community-Research Partnership, Journal of Community Psychology. Large numbers of social policy initiatives and community organizations are currently engaged in "community building" efforts that seek, in part, to strengthen informal relationships and the organizational infrastructure of communities and to build the capacity of communities to manage and foster community change. One critical requirement for improving such practice is for communities to have greater access and capacity to use information for planning, advocacy, and assessment. There are, however, a number of challenges to this, especially as it concerns understanding complex, sometimes elusive, dimensions of community circumstances and dynamics–the level of community "social capital," for example–that are of central interest to those involved in community-building efforts. The authors describe what was learned through a community-research partnership that attempted to test practical options for community-based organizations (CBOs) to measure aspects of community social capital for their own purposes and within the constraints of budget, time, and skills under which they work.   [More]  Descriptors: School Community Relationship, Community Change, Community Organizations, Social Capital

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