Bibliography: African Americans (page 1194 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Gilman W. Whiting, Daniel T. Levin, Jason L. Miller, Timothy Barnett, Molly E. Yackel, Cynthia B. Dillard, Mark D. Thornton, Karega M. Rausch, Catherine E. Mosher, and Greg J. Duncan.

Barnett, Timothy (2006). Politicizing the Personal: Frederick Douglass, Richard Wright, and Some Thoughts on the Limits of Critical Literacy, College English. The idea that "the personal is political" is both a commonplace in composition studies and something many have not yet fully theorized. The literature on personal writing tends to explore the relationship of the personal to academic discourse and the ethics and problems of intruding into students' lives. Because of this emphasis on the individual, some critics, such as James Berlin and Joel Haefner, suggest a dichotomy between personal writing and social critique, but such a position is undermined by some basic tenets of critical pedagogy, a strong influence on composition studies. Critical pedagogues do address the links between the personal and social critique but fail to fully explore a critical pedagogy tied to personal experience. This article examines the literacy narratives of Frederick Douglass's "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave" and Richard Wright's "Black Boy". According to the author, on the surface, Douglass's and Wright's narratives provide a simple celebration of literacy, however, a more complicated pattern emerges from the experiences of these men. Both men become obsessed with generative themes that help them create radical personal and social change–with reading and writing being central to their experiences.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Discourse, Writing (Composition), Personal Narratives, Literary Criticism

Magnuson, Katherine A.; Duncan, Greg J. (2006). The Role of Family Socioeconomic Resources in the Black-White Test Score Gap among Young Children, Developmental Review. This paper reviews evidence on the family origins of racial differences in young children's test scores and considers how much of the gap is due to differences in the economic and demographic conditions in which black and white children grow up. Our review of the literature finds that the estimated size of the gaps varies considerably across studies. However, a surprisingly consistent result is that a collection of measures related to family socioeconomic resources appears to account for a little less than half a standard deviation of the black-white test score gap, regardless of the assessments used or the populations studied. We discuss the policy implications of these findings and suggest avenues for future research.   [More]  Descriptors: Young Children, Racial Differences, Scores, Socioeconomic Status

Yates, H. Marguerite; Collins, Vikki K. (2006). How One School Made the Pieces Fit: Elementary School Builds on a Learning Community to Lift Achievement for Black Students in Reading and Math, Journal of Staff Development. Brewer Elementary is facing problems with their students' achievement in literacy and mathematics. Teachers are consistently struggling with students underperforming on state standardized tests over several years, reflecting national trends that show students of color often struggle when compared with white students (Testing: Index of Diversity, n.d.). This paper presents the story of Brewer Elementary School, and how it successfully turned around when teachers formed professional learning communities, focused intensely on student achievement, and improved their students' achievement in literacy and mathematics.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Students, Academic Achievement, Elementary Schools, Reading Achievement

Mocombe, Paul C. (2006). The Sociolinguistic Nature of Black Academic Failure in Capitalist Education: A Reevaluation of "Language in the Inner City" and Its Social Function, "Acting White", Race, Ethnicity & Education. Studies on the acting white hypothesis–the premise that black students purposefully do poorly in school and on standardized tests because of racialized peer pressure–to explain the black-white achievement gap have not been able to negate the fact that a "burden of acting white" exists for some black students, even though it is not prevalent among the group. This article rethinks the conventional understanding of "acting white," as the basis for the black-white achievement gap, within a world-system analysis that reconceptualizes the very premise of the construct in order to get at a better understanding of its social psychological manifestation. I conclude from this theoretical reexamination that the construct has very little to do with antischool norms, but everything to do with a mismatch of linguistic structures and functions.   [More]  Descriptors: Urban Areas, Academic Failure, Standardized Tests, African American Students

Levin, Daniel T.; Banaji, Mahzarin R. (2006). Distortions in the Perceived Lightness of Faces: The Role of Race Categories, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Although lightness perception is clearly influenced by contextual factors, it is not known whether knowledge about the reflectance of specific objects also affects their lightness. Recent research by O. H. MacLin and R. Malpass (2003) suggests that subjects label Black faces as darker than White faces, so in the current experiments, an adjustment methodology was used to test the degree to which expectations about the relative skin tone associated with faces of varying races affect the perceived lightness of those faces. White faces were consistently judged to be relatively lighter than Black faces, even for racially ambiguous faces that were disambiguated by labels. Accordingly, relatively abstract expectations about the relative reflectance of objects can affect their perceived lightness.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Factors, Visual Perception, Visual Discrimination, Expectation

George, Robert F. (2006). The Race Card: An Interactive Tool for Teaching Multiculturalism, Multicultural Perspectives. When teaching multicultural education, whether training future teachers or working with students, what is usually excluded is a critical examination of the dominant power structure of whiteness. In this article, the author discusses "The Race Card," a free resource that can provide a tool to allow all players to critically examine how the dominant white society gives or withholds power, privilege, and advantages to groups of individuals based on differences such as race, gender, social class, or socioeconomic status.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Bias, Social Class, Multicultural Education, Power Structure

Christensen, Teresa M.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana; Salgado, Roy A.; Thornton, Mark D.; Miller, Jason L. (2006). Facilitating Reminiscence Groups: Perceptions of Group Leaders, Journal for Specialists in Group Work. This article presents the results of a two-year qualitative investigation in which group leaders provided their perceptions of the process of facilitating reminiscence groups with elderly persons in a residential care facility. Group Culture emerged as the dominant construct. Findings from this study can serve guide leaders who are interested in facilitating reminiscence groups.   [More]  Descriptors: Recall (Psychology), Residential Care, Older Adults, Counseling Techniques

Vandiver, Donna M. (2006). A Prospective Analysis of Juvenile Male Sex Offenders: Characteristics and Recidivism Rates as Adults, Journal of Interpersonal Violence. This research assesses the recidivism rates of a sample of 300 registered male sex offenders who were juveniles at the time of their initial arrest for a sex offense. This sample is followed for 3 to 6 years after they reached adulthood; recidivism rates are assessed during their adulthood only. The typical juvenile is a 15-year-old Caucasian male who was arrested for sexual assault or indecency with a child. The majority of the victims are females with an average age of 8. Although only 13 are rearrested during the follow-up period for a sex offense, more than half of the sample is arrested at least once for a nonsexual offense. The results of a Cox regression indicate that victim age, offender age, and victim sex are significant predictors of recidivism during adulthood.   [More]  Descriptors: Recidivism, Males, Sexual Abuse, Criminals

Gushue, George V.; Whitson, Melissa L. (2006). The Relationship of Ethnic Identity and Gender Role Attitudes to the Development of Career Choice Goals among Black and Latina Girls, Journal of Counseling Psychology. This study is a preliminary exploration of how individual differences in gender role attitudes and ethnic identity might be related to career decision self-efficacy and the gender traditionality of career choice goals in a sample of 102 9th-grade Black and Latina girls. Extending social-cognitive career theory, the authors examined 2 path models in which career decision self-efficacy mediated the effects of gender role attitudes and ethnic identity on the traditionality of the participants' career choice goals. Models depicting full and partial mediation were considered. The results of the path analyses provided confirmation for an extension of the social-cognitive career theory model, indicating that for this sample, career decision self-efficacy fully mediated the influence of egalitarian gender role attitudes and ethnic identity on gender traditionality in career choice goals. These findings offer support for consideration of the role of gender role attitudes and ethnic identity in career self-exploration and vocational guidance with Black and Latina girls. Limitations, implications for counseling, and suggestions for future research are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Females, Career Choice, Self Efficacy, Path Analysis

Ruby, Kathy, Ed. (2006). Residential Group Care Quarterly. Volume 7, Number 2, Fall 2006, Child Welfare League of America (NJ1). "Residential Group Care Quarterly" is published four times a year by the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) Whatever Happened to Sound Clinical Reasoning? (Elizabeth Kohlstaedt); (2) Minorities as Majority Disproportionality in Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice (Michelle Y. Green); and (3) Point/Counterpoint: Should Residential Services Only Be Used in Emergency Circumstances that Are Time Limited (90 days or less)? (James L. Murphy and Christopher Bellonci). (Individual articles contain references.) [For the Volume 7, Number 1, Summer 2006 issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly," see ED493331.]   [More]  Descriptors: Disproportionate Representation, Child Welfare, Youth, Hispanic American Students

Dillard, Cynthia B. (2006). When the Music Changes, So Should the Dance: Cultural and Spiritual Considerations in Paradigm "Proliferation", International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE). This paper explores the subtle (and often not so subtle) cultural, social, political and spiritual meanings behind the very notion of paradigm "proliferation" including the often exclusionary intentions and implications in how research is undertaken, represented and for what (and whose) purposes. Dealing with these contested meanings brings a particularized paradox for scholars of color as we seek to imagine, create, and embrace new and useful paradigms from and through which we engage in educational research. For Black feminist scholars in particular, there are deep and serious implications in choosing to embrace paradigms that resonate with our spirit as well as our intellect, regardless of issues of "proliferation." Towards this end, I put forth the notion of an endarkened feminist epistemology, as a way forward in this paradigm proliferation discussion.   [More]  Descriptors: Models, Epistemology, Educational Research, Feminism

Whiting, Gilman W. (2006). Enhancing Culturally Diverse Males' Scholar Identity: Suggestions for Educators of Gifted Students, Gifted Child Today. This article describes the components of a scholar identity and sets forth two propositions: (1) Black and Hispanic males are more likely to achieve academically when they have a scholar identity; and (2) Black and Hispanic males are more likely to be viewed as gifted if they achieve at higher levels. Both of these propositions have clear implications for the persistent and pervasive underrepresentation of these culturally diverse males in gifted education. Educators must recognize the importance of developing and nurturing a scholar identity in these populations. With an improved focus on scholarly identity, more Black and Hispanic males will find a sense of belonging, a sense of worth, an increased sense of efficacy in school settings, and will achieve at higher levels. Suggestions for promoting a scholar identity are given.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Student Attitudes, Self Concept, Self Efficacy, African American Students

Celeste, Marie (2006). Play Behaviors and Social Interactions of a Child Who Is Blind: In Theory and Practice, Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness. This case study describes the play behaviors and social interactions of a preschool-age girl who is blind and has no additional disabilities. The data obtained from the assessment protocol indicated that although the participant was developmentally at or above age level in most domains, she demonstrated limited play behaviors and compromised social interactions. The results reinforce the variability of social competence skills in young children with visual impairments.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Play, Peer Relationship, Blindness, Preschool Children

Mosher, Catherine E.; Prelow, Hazel M.; Chen, William W.; Yackel, Molly E. (2006). Coping and Social Support as Mediators of the Relation of Optimism to Depressive Symptoms among Black College Students, Journal of Black Psychology. This investigation examines mechanisms through which optimism may influence psychological adjustment among 133 Black college students. Specifically, this study evaluates the extent to which active and avoidant coping and social support account for the association between optimism and depressive symptoms. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Life Orientation Test–Revised, the COPE, the Social Provisions Scale, and the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Avoidant coping and social support mediated the relation between optimism and depressive symptoms, whereas active coping did not mediate this relationship. Results partially replicate those of prior research and illustrate the need for culturally sensitive theory regarding the combined effect of personality, coping strategies, and social support on psychological adjustment to stressful situations.   [More]  Descriptors: Coping, Social Support Groups, Depression (Psychology), Symptoms (Individual Disorders)

Rausch, Karega M.; Skiba, Russell (2006). Discipline, Disability, and Race: Disproportionality in Indiana Schools. Education Policy Brief. Volume 4, Number 10, Fall 2006, Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, Indiana University. The purpose of this policy brief is to describe the usage and trends of discipline for students with disabilities in Indiana to help inform local and state policymaking. The brief begins with a review of national and Indiana studies, followed by data that illustrate (1) how general and special education students compare with respect to suspension and expulsion; (2) the extent of use of the special disciplinary provisions under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA); (3) differences in suspension and expulsion rates for students in different disability categories; and (4) racial disparities in the use of IDEA disciplinary provisions. Information reported in this policy brief shows that: (1) Indiana's special education population is suspended out-of-school more often than the general education population, but they are less likely to be expelled; (2) Use of IDEA disciplinary provisions continues to be relatively infrequent, but may have increased slightly compared to four years ago; (3) Students identified with an emotional disability full-time are at a relatively high risk of being removed compared to other students with a disability; (4) Black students with a disability continue to be overrepresented in IDEA disciplinary provision use, and these disparities have increased compared to four years ago; (5) Racial disparity for Black students is most likely to be found in the IDEA disciplinary category other suspension/expulsion greater than 10 days; (6) Black students are relatively proportionally disciplined in the weapons/drugs and hearing officer determination categories; and (7) Some Indiana school corporations account for a highly disproportionate share of IDEA disciplinary use overall and for Black students in particular. (Contains 6 figures and 25 endnotes.) [This policy brief was produced by the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy, Indiana State University School of Education.]   [More]  Descriptors: Race, Corporations, Suspension, Expulsion

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