Bibliography: African Americans (page 1189 of 1351)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the Black Lives & Me website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Monique Busch, Kira Hudson Banks, Norman Horrocks, Gerald W. Bracey, Gaye Theresa Johnson, Dave Tell, Steven M. Koch, Pancho McFarland, Margaret Beale Spencer, and Sally Black.

Simon, Lisa (2008). Weaving Colors into a White Landscape: Unpacking the Silences in Karen Hesse's Children's Novel "Out of the Dust", Multicultural Education. The children's novel "Out of the Dust" (Hesse, 1997) is an evocative portrayal of the drought and dust storms that devastated Midwestern farms in the 1930s. Through the voice of her 13-year-old narrator, Karen Hesse intertwines history and free verse poetry to create what many readers find to be a moving depiction of the Oklahoma Dustbowl experience. The novel's power has been widely recognized, winning a number of prestigious honors, including the Newbery Medal. In addition to its critical success, "Out of the Dust" is a valuable text in the classroom. With the same setting as the opening of "The Grapes of Wrath" (Steinbeck, 1939) and with a writing style and vocabulary that make it immensely readable, "Out of the Dust" helps build background knowledge for students' understanding of Steinbeck's novel. By using "Out of the Dust," teachers offer students not only an engaging text, but one that can provide academic scaffolds to other historical and literary texts. As a result of all that this celebrated children's text offers, it is much more likely to be singled out for acclamation than critique. It is the author's stance in this article, however, that using Hesse's novel in the classroom is problematic without a critical literacy framework. That novel, like many current and classic texts, depicts the 1930s Dustbowl exclusively in relation to White experiences. Using that novel without questioning the limitations of those representations serves to privilege White experiences and to marginalize the experiences of Oklahomans of color as well as significant aspects of Oklahoma and U.S. history. The process of uncovering those marginalized stories with the goal of problematizing the dominant depiction of the Dustbowl is the focus of this article.   [More]   [More]  Descriptors: Childrens Literature, Novels, Poetry, Reading Materials

Clark, Patricia; Buchanan, Jackie; Legters, Lyman (2008). Taking Action on Racial Disproportionality in the Child Welfare System, Child Welfare. Mirroring national trends, children of color in Washington state's King County are overrepresented at every point in the child welfare system and fare worse by most measures than are Caucasian children. The King County Coalition on Racial Disproportionality was formed to reduce and ultimately eliminate racial disproportionality in the county's child welfare system. The research-based strategies implemented to address the issue focused on children in care longer than two years. They included participation in the Breakthrough Series Collaborative on Racial Disproportionality, implementation of benchmark hearings, and development of Champions for Permanence. Now in the beginning stages, perhaps the most significant success is heightened awareness within the community of the disparate outcomes for children of color in the child welfare system.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Welfare, Disproportionate Representation, Counties, Racial Differences

Ruiz, Eddy A. (2008). Extended Opportunity Programs and Services and Welfare-to-Work: Self-Sufficiency and Educational Attainment. UCLA Community College Bibliography, Community College Journal of Research and Practice. The citations presented in this article for research and resource materials on community college services and learning activities were selected to provide information regarding Extended Opportunity Program and Services (EOP&S) and Welfare-to-Work program development, implementation, and assessment. This bibliography has broad implications for faculty, administration, and staff who serve "at-promise" students who may be underprepared educationally. Several of the citations focus on California community colleges and offer quantitative and case study analysis. These provide first-hand perspectives pertaining to programs designed to assist students in achieving self-sufficiency and certificate and degree attainment.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Educational Attainment, Program Development, Resource Materials

Busch, Monique; Wall, Jacqueline Remondet; Koch, Steven M.; Anderson, Clara (2008). Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Children of Color: A Collaborative Community Approach, Child Welfare. The state of Indiana recommended a committee be formed to address the disproportional representation of black youth in out-of-home placements. In response, the Indiana Disproportionality Committee (IDC) was established. This article presents the development, objectives and future of the IDC. One of the objectives, research, will be offered as an example of the committee's collaborative strategies. The IDC, in partnership with another organization, has begun exploring relationships between ethnicity, risk factors and treatment outcomes. The results of this research effort have examined disproportion and disparity, leading the IDC to identify needs for change within the state. Barriers and successes of the IDC will be shared, so that others can use these efforts to guide their own strategies to reduce disproportionality.   [More]  Descriptors: African American Children, Cooperation, Disproportionate Representation, Risk

Johnson, Gaye Theresa (2008). Constellations of Struggle: Luisa Moreno, Charlotta Bass, and the Legacy for Ethnic Studies, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. Efforts to build interethnic identification and solidarity are often accompanied by disappointment. Devastating consequences have resulted at times from lapses in inter-community cooperation, but more often from organized efforts to undermine solidarity among aggrieved groups. Moreover, those efforts have been accompanied by divisive discourse, by language that measures the histories of interethnic struggles by their shortcomings rather than their successes. Understanding the legacy of Afro-Chicano coalitional politics in Los Angeles is one way to counter that disappointment. This essay examines the wartime activism of two women: Luisa Moreno and Charlotta Bass. It reveals interracial and antiracist alliances, divisions among aggrieved minority communities, and important insights into the infra-politics that informed and shaped a common urban antiracist culture of struggle within these two communities of color.   [More]  Descriptors: Ethnic Studies, Females, Community Cooperation, Politics

Niesz, Tricia (2008). Professional Movements, Local Appropriations, and the Limits of Educational Critique: The Cultural Production of Mixed Messages at an Urban Middle School, International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE). Although critical ethnographers have explored in some depth the ways that social critique informs how youth assess their schooling experiences, the implications of social critique by educators themselves have been of much less interest. Yet, numerous professional educational movements have been wrought from social critique or, at the very least, from critique of school practices that fail to contribute to more equitable social outcomes. Featuring one middle-school classroom contextualized by such movements in the field of education, this article presents an analysis of student appropriations of the messages embedded in a year-long community service-learning project. The project engaged students in democratic action framed by the question: "Do our voices count?" It is argued that while students embraced a newfound political agency through this work, the lack of opportunity to question individualism, the structural dimensions of urban poverty and their own relative privilege in the school ultimately produced social divisions rather than social critique.   [More]  Descriptors: Service Learning, Community Programs, Social Change, Ethnography

Rong, Xue Lan; Fitchett, Paul (2008). Socialization and Identity Transformation of Black Immigrant Youth in the United States, Theory Into Practice. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the relevant research literatures in order to conceptualize Black immigrant students' socialization and identity transformation, thereby finding more effective ways to work with this group. Providing Asian immigrant students as a comparison group, this article identifies and analyzes the commonalities and intra- intergroup variations in vulnerabilities, strengths, and resources within youth, family, and immigrant communities. The authors advocate three additive approaches (understanding identity needs, bridging the divisions between Black immigrants and Black Americans, and engaging ethnic communities) that educators may use to help Black immigrant teens in their initial and continuing adaptation to U.S. schools and society.   [More]  Descriptors: Socialization, Immigrants, African Americans, Asian Americans

Bracey, Gerald W. (2008). NCLB: Achievement Robin Hood?, Principal Leadership. In his "Wall Street Journal" op-ed on the 25th of anniversary of "A Nation At Risk", former assistant secretary of education Chester E. Finn Jr. applauded the report for turning U.S. education away from equality and toward achievement. It was not surprising, then, that in mid-2008, Finn arranged a conference to examine the potential "Robin Hood effects" of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). The question being, Has NCLB's focus on getting everyone up to "proficient" and closing the achievement gap caused the neglect of gifted and talented students? This article discusses what the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) revealed about NCLB. Loveless, a researcher at the Brookings Institute, took this tack and looked at trends for fourth graders who scored at the 10th and 90th percentiles in reading and math. Although the timelines of NAEP tests and NCLB make interpretation problematic, Loveless's study indicates that there is no discernible Robin Hood effect from NCLB. In another study, Reardon examines what happens to high achievers of different groups as they move through their school careers. Reardon's study indicates that for whatever reasons, high-achieving Black students lose ground to Whites faster than their average or low achieving peers.   [More]  Descriptors: Gifted, Federal Legislation, Talent, Academic Achievement

Tell, Dave (2008). The "Shocking Story" of Emmett Till and the Politics of Public Confession, Quarterly Journal of Speech. In 1955, journalist William Bradford Huie interviewed Emmett Till's killers and published their confession in "Look" magazine. Titled "The Shocking Story of Approved Murder in Mississippi," Huie's tale dominated the remembrance of Emmett Till for nearly fifty years. This essay argues that the power of the "Shocking Story" to control the memory of Till's murder resides in its recourse to the "expressive confession," the distinctive power of which is a capacity to naturalize historical events and thereby constitute a master narrative of inevitability in which further rhetorical intervention seems unnecessary. So understood, the "Shocking Story" is not just one more recounting of Till's untimely death; it is also a treatise about the role of speech in the violence of the Mississippi Delta.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Discrimination, Interviews, Homicide, Self Disclosure (Individuals)

Blumenstein, Lynn; Berry, John; Fialkoff, Francine; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hadro, Josh; Horrocks, Norman; Oder, Norman; Roncevic, Mirela (2008). "LJ" Report "Anaheim, ALA 2008": Amid the Fantasy, Doses of Reality, Library Journal. If the resort city of Anaheim, California, home of Disneyland and its "imagineers," marked a departure from the urban reality of the typical American Library Association (ALA) annual conference, it was impossible, at this 2008 meeting, to avoid urgent library issues. How do libraries maintain their value and cultural presence as users turn to the Internet? How do library products and library catalogs change? The emergence of such products as EBSCO's simplified interface and the social discovery service BiblioCommons signal change, as does ALA's $1 million grant from the Verizon Foundation, which also sponsored the conference's first-ever gaming pavilion, to study the impact of gaming on literacy. The buzz about digital downloads of books, audiobooks, and DVDs was louder than ever, even as books on paper dominated publishers' booths and programs. In this article, the authors report on the ALA 2008 conference and discuss the need for library "imagineering" on creating new catalogs, engaging users, and navigating technology.   [More]  Descriptors: Conferences (Gatherings), Professional Associations, Library Services, Library Education

Spencer, Margaret Beale (2008). Lessons Learned and Opportunities Ignored Since "Brown v. Board of Education:" Youth Development and the Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Fourth Annual Brown Lecture in Education Research, Educational Researcher. The scholarship of Kenneth B. and Mamie P. Clark, referenced in the U.S. Supreme Court's landmark decision in "Brown v. Board of Education," emphasized the nation's color line, not only in the Jim Crow South but in American cities overall. The Clarks pointed out the critical role of context; however, they applied it narrowly to the issue of "harm" as an inevitable consequence of segregation. The author of this article argues that the Clarks and their social science colleagues missed an opportunity to view Black youth as "diverse human beings engaged in normal developmental tasks under difficult conditions." She denotes the role of "context" as key, especially when linked with "human growth" and "psychological processes." Her findings from a sample of impoverished multiethnic youth reaffirm that America is not colorblind and suggest that these youths' political beliefs and concerns about government vary by ethnicity, gender, family structure, and skin color preferences.   [More]  Descriptors: Social Science Research, African American Children, Youth, Self Concept

Black, Sally; Hausman, Alice (2008). Adolescents' Views of Guns in a High-Violence Community, Journal of Adolescent Research. Firearms account for the majority of deaths among young Black men in America. This article presents a qualitative investigation of youth temptations, emotional reactions, and subsequent behavior with respect to guns. Twenty-three youth enrolled in a community-based firearm reduction program have participated in interviews on retrospective experiences with guns. Common temptations for gun carrying are protection during drug dealing, protection from disrespect, and protection from repeated aggression and bullying. Gun handling produces two diverse responses, fear and excitement. Interviews reveal a dangerous form of gunplay known as flossing and cognitive distortions of peer attitudes toward carriers. Results suggest the need to promote normal adolescent development through increased social opportunities, reduced exposure to guns, and empowering bystanders to prevent escalation of conflict.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescent Development, Weapons, Adolescents, Violence

McFarland, Pancho (2008). Chicano Hip-Hop as Interethnic Contact Zone, Aztlan: A Journal of Chicano Studies. The critical study of rap music and hip-hop culture has the potential to expand Americans understanding of race and culture in the United States. Hip-hop culture as a multiracial, multiethnic phenomenon reveals the ways in which race relations over the past thirty years have become increasingly complex. The theories and concepts that they use to understand racial phenomena need to keep pace. Vertical orientations toward understanding race, in which the subordinate or minority group is compared to the dominant group and in which the dominant group is always the reference group for a subordinate ethnic group, are obsolete. Increasingly, the important relationships are between subordinate ethnic groups. A new framework for analyzing race relations and youth culture would therefore be horizontal in orientation: it would recognize that influence flows in many directions and not simply from top to bottom. It would investigate the ways in which the primary frame of reference for youth of color is not the dominant white American culture but the worldviews, attitudes, and values of people of color.   [More]  Descriptors: Popular Culture, Racial Factors, Cultural Influences, Mexican Americans

Dettlaff, Alan J.; Rycraft, Joan R. (2008). Deconstructing Disproportionality: Views from Multiple Community Stakeholders, Child Welfare. While the existence of racial disproportionality has been well documented, the causes of disproportionality are less clear. Studies identifying contributing factors have relied largely on analyses of state and national data sets, which may lack the robust data necessary to fully explain the factors related to this issue. Further, a limitation of existing research is the lack of data from the voice of those in communities affected by disproportionality. This study was designed to develop a deeper understanding of disproportionality from the views of multiple community stakeholders. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected to provide a greater depth of information that can be used alongside existing studies toward developing an enhanced understanding of disproportionality in child welfare.   [More]  Descriptors: Child Welfare, Disproportionate Representation, Race, Social Services

Banks, Kira Hudson; Singleton, Jennifer L.; Kohn-Wood, Laura P. (2008). The Influence of Hope on the Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. This study investigated how hope influences the relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms. Results from participants' (N = 318) responses suggest that increased levels of hope were directly related to decreased levels of depressive symptoms. However, increased levels of hope were also related to a stronger relationship between discrimination and depressive symptoms.   [More]  Descriptors: Racial Discrimination, Depression (Psychology), Symptoms (Individual Disorders), Correlation

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